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The Calendar

The Holy-days which are appointed to be observed, commonly called the Red Letter Days, are printed in heavy type.

The other entries, which are commonly called the Black Letter Days, are partly lesser commemorations, which may be observed in accordance with the rubrics at the end of the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, pages 309 and following, and partly historical entries, which have been included for the information and devotion of the faithful.

Certain ancient memorials whose historical character is obscure have been retained, and are printed in brackets. New names have been added from the ancient calendars, and also from the history of the Anglican Communion, without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as Saints of the Church.

 

JANUARY

The Octave Day of Christmas and Circumcision of our Lord, being New Year’s Day.

The Epiphany of our Lord with commemoration of his Baptism in the Octave.

10 William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, Martyr 1645.

12 Benedict Biscop, Abbot and Scholar, 689.
John Horden, Missionary, first Bishop of Moosonee, 1893.

13 The Octave Day of the Epiphany.
Hilary, Doctor, Bishop of Poitiers, France, 368.

19 Henry, Missionary, Bishop in Finland, 1150.

21 [Agnes, Virgin and Martyr, Rome, c. 304.]

22 Vincent, Deacon and Martyr, Spain, c. 304.

24 St Timothy and St Titus, Apostolic men.

25 The Conversion of St Paul.

26 Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, Apostolic man, Martyr 155 or 156.

27 John Chrysostom, Doctor, Bishop of Constantinople, 407.

30 Charles Stuart, King, beheaded 1649.


FEBRUARY

The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, and the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

3 Anskar, Missionary, first Bishop in Sweden, 864.

11 Caedmon, first recorded Christian Poet in England, c. 680.

14 [Valentine, Bishop and Martyr.]

23 Lindel Tsen, Bishop in China, consecrated 1929; and Paul Sasaki, Bishop in Japan, consecrated 1935.

24 St Matthias the Apostle.

27 George Herbert, Pastor and Poet, 1633.


MARCH

1 St David of Wales, Archbishop of Menevia, c. 544.

2 Chad, Missionary and first Bishop of Lichfield, 672.
John Wesley, Preacher, 1791; Charles Wesley, Poet, 1788.

6 Perpetua and her companions, Martyrs, Africa, 203.

7 Thomas Aquinas, Doctor and Poet, 1274.

12 Gregory the Great, Doctor, Bishop of Rome, 604.

17 St Patrick of Ireland, Missionary and Bishop, 461.

19 St Joseph of Nazareth, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Poet, 1711.

20 Cuthbert, Missionary, Bishop of Lindisfarne, 687.

21 Benedict, Abbot of Monte Cassino, Italy, c. 540.
Thomas Cranmer, Translator and Reviser of the Liturgy, Archbishop of Canterbury, Martyr 1556.

25 The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

29 John Keble of Oxford, Scholar and Poet, 1866.


APRIL

2 Henry Budd, first North American Indian to be ordained to the ministry, 1850.

3 Richard, Bishop of Chichester, 1253.
Reginald Heber, Bishop in India, Poet, 1826.

4 Ambrose, Doctor and Poet, Bishop of Milan, 397.

11 Leo the Great, Doctor, Bishop of Rome, 461.

19 Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, Martyr 1012.

21 Anselm, Doctor, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1109.

23 St George of England, Martyr c. 304.

25 St Mark the Evangelist.


MAY

St Philip and St James the Apostles. St James the Brother of the Lord, Martyr 62.

2 Athanasius, Doctor, Bishop of Alexandria, 373.

4 Monnica, the mother of Augustine of Hippo, 387.

9 Gregory of Nazianzus, Doctor, Bishop of Constantinople, 389.

11 Cyril and Methodius, Missionaries to the Slavs, 885.

12 Florence Nightingale, Nurse, 1910.

19 Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, 988.

20 The Council of Nicaea, 325.

25 Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, Scholar and Poet, 709.

26 Augustine, Missionary, first Archbishop of Canterbury 597-605.

27 Bede, Presbyter, Doctor and Historian, 735.

30 Joan of Arc. 1431.


JUNE

1 Justin Martyr, Doctor, c. 165.

5 Boniface, Missionary, Bishop of Mainz, Germany, Martyr 754.

9 Columba, Abbot of Iona: Ireland and Scotland, 597.

11 St Barnabas the Apostle.

14 Basil the Great, Doctor, Bishop of Caesarea, Cappadocia, 379.

22 Alban, first recorded Martyr in Britain, c. 304.

24 The Nativity of St John the Baptist.

28 Irenaeus, Doctor, Bishop of Lyons, France, c. 200.

29 St Peter and St Paul the Apostles, Martyrs c. 64.


JULY

1 The Octave Day of St John the Baptist.
Confederation of Canada, 1867: Dominion Day.

2 The Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to Elizabeth.

6 The Octave Day of St Peter and St Paul.
Thomas More, Chancellor of England, Martyr 1535.

9 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1228.

15 Swithun, Bishop of Winchester, c. 862.

20 [Margaret, Virgin and Martyr, Antioch of Pisidia.]

22 St Mary Magdalene.

25 St James the Apostle, Martyr 44.

26 [St Anne, the mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary.]

29 Olaf, King of Norway, Martyr 1030.
William Wilberforce, Emancipator of the Slaves, 1833.


AUGUST

1 Lammas Day.
The Maccabean Martyrs.

5 Oswald, King of Northumbria, Martyr 641.

The Transfiguration of our Lord.

7 The Name of Jesus.

10 Laurence, Archdeacon of Rome, Martyr 258.

12 Charles Inglis, first Anglican Bishop in Canada, consecrated 1787.

13 Hippolytus, Doctor, Bishop in Rome, Martyr 235.
Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Down, Ireland, 1667.

15 The Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

20 Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, France, Doctor and Poet, 1153.

24 St Bartholomew the Apostle.

28 Augustine, Doctor, Bishop of Hippo, Africa, 430.
Robert McDonald, Missionary in the Western Arctic, 1913.

29 The Beheading of St John the Baptist.

31 Aidan, Missionary, Bishop of Lindisfarne, 651.


SEPTEMBER

1 Giles, Abbot, southern France, c. 720.

3 Robert Wolfall, Presbyter.
First recorded Anglican Communion Service in Canada, Frobisher Bay, 1578.

8 The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

10 Edmund James Peck, Missionary to the Eskimo, 1924.

13 Cyprian, Doctor, Bishop of Carthage, Martyr 258.
First General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada, 1893.

14 Holy Cross Day.

16 Ninian, Missionary, first Bishop in Galloway, Scotland, c. 430.

19 Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury, 690.

20 John Coleridge Patteson, Missionary, first Bishop of Melanesia, Martyr 1871.

21 St Matthew the Apostle and Evangelist.

25 Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, Translator of the Scriptures, 1626.

29 St Michael and All Angels.

30 Jerome, Doctor, Presbyter in Rome and Bethlehem, Translator of the Scriptures, 420.


OCTOBER

1 Remigius, Bishop of Rheims, France, c. 530.

4 Francis of Assisi, 1226.

6 William Tyndale, Translator of the Scriptures into English, Martyr 1536.

9 St Denys of France, first Bishop of Paris, Martyr 272.
Robert Grosseteste, Scholar, Bishop of Lincoln, 1253.

10 Paulinus, Missionary, Archbishop of York, 644.

11 St Philip of Caesarea, Apostolic man.

13 Edward the Confessor, King, Westminster, 1066.

16 Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, Bishops, Martyrs 1555.

17 Etheldreda, or Audrey, Queen, Abbess of Ely, 679.

18 St Luke the Evangelist.

25 [Crispin and Crispinian, Martyrs 285.]

26 Cedd, Missionary, Bishop of the East Saxons, 664.
Alfred, King of the West Saxons, 899.

28 St Simon the Zealot and St Jude, the Apostles. St Jude the Brother of the Lord.

29 James Hannington, Missionary and Bishop, Martyr 1885.


NOVEMBER

All Saints.

2 All Souls: Commemoration of the Faithful Departed.
Richard Hooker, Doctor of the Church of England, 1600.

7 Willibrord, Missionary, Bishop of Utrecht, Holland, 739.

8 The Octave Day of All Saints: The Founders, Benefactors, and Missionaries of the Church in Canada.

11 Martin, Bishop of Tours, France, c. 397.

13 Charles Simeon of Cambridge, Pastor, 1836.

16 Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, 1200.
Margaret, Queen of Scotland, 1093.

17 Hilda, Abbess of Whitby, 680.

20 Edmund, King of East Anglia, Martyr 870.

22 [Cecilia, Virgin and Martyr, Rome.]

23 Clement, Apostolic man, Bishop of Rome, c. 100.

25 [Catherine, Virgin and Martyr, Alexandria.]

30 St Andrew the Apostle.


DECEMBER

4 Clement of Alexandria, Doctor, c. 210.

6 [Nicolas, Bishop of Myra, c. 342.]

8 The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

16 O Sapientia: an ancient Advent anthem.

17 Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, Martyr in Rome c. 115.

21 St Thomas the Apostle.

25 The Nativity of our Lord: Christmas Day.

26 St Stephen the Martyr.

27 St John the Apostle and Evangelist.

28 The Innocents.

29 Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1170.

30 John Wycliffe of Oxford, Scholar, Translator of the Scriptures into English, 1384.

31 John West, Missionary, Red River, Canada, 1845.


When two lesser commemorations fall on the same day and it is desired to remember both, it is recommended that one of them be transferred to the nearest day before or after for which no special provision has been made.

622: Year 1

If you have not yet taken the time to review the introductory notes on how to get the most out of the study series, we’d like to invite you to do that now! View the introductory notes here. Skip to Year 2 lessons here.

The first year of 622 is organized into six units (see below). These sections begin with a unit exploring our relationship with God – by whom we are known completely, loved unconditionally and destined for a glorious future. From there, we look at the meaning of praying together, the story of our spiritual ancestors (and how we can pray “with” them), building a personal habit of devotion, the significance of Holy Communion, and how all of this impacts our lives as individuals and as a Church. The flow of lessons takes into consideration the Church calendar, so that lessons touching on the Incarnation coincide approximately with Advent, and an in-depth look at Holy Communion occurs during Lent.

If you’re just starting out with “622”, then Year 1 is the best place to begin. Following are the links to the documents that you will need to run the curriculum: the “622” service booklet, an optional booklet containing the “Prayers and Thanksgivings” section from the BCP, and the leader’s notes and student handouts for each of the 42 lessons. We’re excited and hopeful about what God will do in your group in the coming year!


622 Resources

622 Service Booklet
Prayers and Thanksgivings

The Lessons

Unit / Lesson Title Leader’s Notes Student Handout
A. WORTH THE TIME
01. Known Download PDF Download PDF
02. Loved Download PDF Download PDF
03. Destined Download PDF Download PDF
B. PRAYING TOGETHER (622)
04. Teach Us Download PDF Download PDF
05. Forgive Us Download PDF Download PDF
06. Glory Be Download PDF Download PDF
07. We Offer Download PDF Download PDF
08. We Believe Download PDF Download PDF
09. Our Father Download PDF Download PDF
10. We Ask Download PDF Download PDF
11. And Now Download PDF Download PDF
C. OUR BACK-STORY
12. It Changes Everything Download PDF Download PDF
13. The Canon Download PDF Download PDF
14. Common Prayer Download PDF Download PDF
15. The Magnificat Download PDF Download PDF
16. The Benedictus Download PDF Download PDF
17. Nunc Dimittis Download PDF Download PDF
D. CUSTOMIZATION 101
18. Full Armour Download PDF Download PDF
19. The Psalms Download PDF Download PDF
20. The OT Download PDF Download PDF
21. The Example of Jesus (part 1) Download PDF Download PDF
22. The Example of Jesus (part 2) Download PDF Download PDF
23. The NT Epistles Download PDF Download PDF
24. The Saints Download PDF Download PDF
25. The Prayer Book Download PDF Download PDF
E. HOLY COMMUNION
26. Past/Present/Future Download PDF Download PDF
27. Passover Download PDF Download PDF
28. Manna Download PDF Download PDF
29. Sacrifice Download PDF Download PDF
30. Proclamation Download PDF Download PDF
31. Sacrament Download PDF Download PDF
F. A NEW CREATION
32. From Fear to Courage Download PDF Download PDF
33. Promise / Mission Download PDF Download PDF
34. The HS: Fruit Download PDF Download PDF
35. The HS: Gifts Download PDF Download PDF
36. Mentor #1: Stephen Download PDF Download PDF
37. Mentor #2: Peter Download PDF Download PDF
38. Mentor #3: Paul Download PDF Download PDF
39. Free Download PDF Download PDF
40. Ambassadors Download PDF Download PDF
41. Heirs Download PDF Download PDF
42. A Living Sacrifice Download PDF Download PDF

LET US KNOW HOW IT’S GOING!

We’d love to hear from you on what is working well and what can be improved in future projects. And in the meantime, we’ll be praying for you!

Almighty God, who hast committed to thy holy Church the care and nurture of thy children: Enlighten with thy wisdom those who teach and those who learn, that, rejoicing in the knowledge of thy truth, they may worship thee and serve thee all the days of their life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. BCP p. 47


Developed for the Prayer Book Society of Canada by Kerry Dickson (kerrydickson.net); edited by Diana Verseghy.

The sources of the quotes used in the lessons can be found here.

Doctrinal Instrument of Salvation: The Use of Scripture in the Prayer Book Lectionary

David Curry

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Introduction

The study of the lectionary marks only the beginning of a consideration of the Church’s use of scripture. Lectionaries are ordered programmes for the regular reading of Holy Scripture in the life of the Church. Such use of scripture suggests as much about the view of scripture as about the character of the Church. For not all Christian churches have a fully developed system for the reading of scripture, and among those churches which do have lectionaries of one sort or another, both the scope of the lectionaries and the principles upon which they are based may vary. And thereupon the vision and form of spiritual life varies. That a church has a lectionary and what its scope and principles are together contribute to the distinguishing characteristics of such a church and express something of its doctrinal standpoint. For as Stephen Sykes has pointed out, “the whole ethos of the church has a doctrinal basis and doctrinal implications” such that “the very fact that the scripture has been read expresses a doctrine.”1 That the scriptures should be read publicly, regularly, and orderly — publicly, as an act of worship, in principle, of the whole church; regularly, as on a daily and continuing basis; and orderly, as according to an appointed schedule of readings — are all expressions of the church’s teaching or doctrine about scripture and about the church’s own life. Equally so, the principles upon which the reading of scripture is ordered are necessarily matters of doctrine.

For the Anglican Church the ordered reading of scripture has formed the crucial and fundamental basis for our tradition of common prayer. The whole of common prayer may be seen to emerge from the desire to provide people with a simple, straightforward, and plain order for the reading of Holy Scripture, as Cranmer’s 1549 Preface makes clear.2 In the matter of English lectionaries, as in all other matters of Anglican liturgy, it would be wrong to focus unduly or exclusively on Cranmer, either for censure or praise, as if he were some sort of crackpot, albeit Ingenious, liturgical eccentric. In these matters the English Prayer Book tradition must be seen within the whole of the wider western liturgical tradition, and as making a signal contribution to that tradition through the development of common prayer. With respect to common prayer, of course, Cranmer’s work was altogether fundamental to its development.

Certainly in the matter of the lectionary, however, one must look both backwards and forwards from Cranmer. The Cranmerian lectionaries of 1549 and 1552 belong to an organic development in the understanding and use of scripture that has both antecedents and consequences. Cranmer was by no means unique in the sixteenth century in perceiving the limitations of the complicated pattern of readings in the Late Medieval Church; nor was he alone in wanting to provide for a simpler and plainer order for scripture reading. The obvious example is the Breviary of the Spanish Cardinal Francisco de Quinones (d. 1540) commissioned by Pope Clement VII and published under Pope Paul III in 1535, which influenced Cranmer considerably, as may be seen both in his three drafts of the lectionary and in the actual wording of the 1549 Preface, which is similar to that of Quinones.3 The crucial difference between the two is just the difference between a breviary, intended primarily and explicitly for the use of clergy and religious according to their rules, and a book of common prayer, intended for the use of all, clergy and laity alike.

The principal importance of Cranmer’s use of scripture lies in establishing the ordered reading of scripture as the basis of common prayer.4 The subsequent developments in the lectionary, until very recently, may be seen as contributing to, improving and, in some sense,

[p.30]

completing that project. They are developments which lie within a coherent tradition of the systematic and doctrinal use of scripture as the basis of common prayer. Within that tradition the fundamental principle governing the lectionaries is the understanding of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation. For salvation, or the end and perfection of man, is revealed by God; scripture is God’s revealed Word. This principle is most clearly stated by Richard Hooker:

The end of the Word of God is to save, and therefore we term it the word of life. The way for all men to be saved is by the knowledge of that truth which the word hath taught . . . . To this end the word of God no otherwise serveth than only in the nature of a doctrinal instrument. It saveth because it maketh “wise to salvation. “5

Such a view understands a necessary and intimate relation between scripture and doctrine. Such an understanding governs the reading of scripture in the Prayer Book tradition.

The understanding of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation provides the logic of the Prayer Book lectionaries. In the re-awakened interest and, indeed, discovery of the Prayer Book, much thought must be given to the ordered reading of scripture as contained in the lectionary. This is necessary for three reasons: first, the intrinsic merits of the lectionary itself which, 1 think, we in our generation are only just now beginning to understand and appreciate; second, the fundamental relation of the lectionary to the tradition of common prayer and especially to the doctrines of justification and sanctification embodied within that tradition; third, alternate liturgy or liturgies containing alternative lectionaries are now urged upon us. These cannot be appreciated without a proper understanding of the programme of the ordered reading of scripture in the Prayer Book.

In June 1983 the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada set in motion a process for the adoption for use of a book of alternative services to be used alongside and not in place of the 1962 Canadian Prayer Book, or so we are assured. While the book has only recently appeared in its fullness in the public domain, some parts of it have been in existence and approved for use for some time. The new lectionary belongs to this latter category. Since 1980 there has been in authorized use an alternative lectionary to that of the Prayer Book.6 This proposed lectionary, as amended in 1983 by the Committee for the Consultation on Common Texts, has become the official alternative lectionary of the Book of Alternative Services. But the principles of the new lectionary and its relation to the tradition of common prayer remain to be considered. The importance of the lectionary in the church’s life requires that any proposed changes be carefully considered. Furthermore, both the reasons advanced for the adoption of the new lectionary and the principles upon which it is based equally demand a reconsideration of the lectionary in the Prayer Book tradition.

This paper seeks to promote at least the beginnings of such a consideration. It consists of three parts: first, a brief examination of the arguments advanced in favour of adopting a new lectionary; second, a brief analysis of the essential principles underlying the new lectionary; and third, a study of the Prayer Book lectionary against which the new changes are advanced. The first part focuses chiefly on two documents: the proposed lectionary authorized for use in 1980, and that lectionary as amended which appeared in the ‘binder-book’ draft of the 1983 General Synod7 and which is contained within the Book of Alternative Services. Both works provide introductions explaining the reason for the new proposed lectionary; these must be examined.

The second part treats briefly the Ordo Lectionum Missae (OLM), 1969, Vatican,8 which is the declared source of the lectionaries proposed for use in the Anglican Church of Canada and elsewhere. OLM argues in part the ascendency of modern biblical criticism as providing the logic for changing the lectionary.

The third and principal part of the paper concentrates on the use of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation within the lectionaries of the Prayer Book, centering somewhat

[p.31]

on the lectionary of the 1962 Canadian Prayer Book, but with reference to the general history of Prayer Book development and to the various Anglican writers who draw out and explain the general logic informing the church’s use of scripture.

A note of explanation and clarification must be added. The term ‘lectionary’ can have both a comprehensive use and a specific use. For instance, the lectionary of the Prayer Book comes to comprehend several specific lectionaries: the daily office lectionary, the Sunday office lectionary, and the eucharistic lectionary (including the propers for saints’ days, etc.). The lectionary also, properly speaking, comprehends the ordered use of the Psalter within the daily offices, the Sunday offices, and the eucharist. The importance of the Psalter within the devotional life of the Church and, in particular, within the tradition of common prayer, cannot be gainsaid. It is one of the many weaknesses of this paper that it does not very much attend to the use of the Psalter within the lectionary system.

Part I

The Canadian Church lectionary revisers have provided us with two introductions to the proposed lectionary, both remarkable for the tenor of their argument. These introductions advance two reasons why the new lectionary should be adopted: ecumenism, and the limitations of the Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary.

In the 1980 Introduction, the ecumenical argument is that we should do what everybody else is doing in lectionary revision. This means to follow Rome and pick up the Ordo Lectionum Missae (OLM),9 as a number of churches have done for their lectionary revisions. But, as we are now so often told, this is not the end of the process of lectionary revisions.10 For eleven churches are working toward a consensus on lectionary readings11 and eventual revision of OLM and all OLM-based lectionaries in order to produce a common lectionary. Furthermore, it is stated that this is what we have done and that we are committed to bring our newOLM-based lectionary into conformity with the new, new lectionary, whenever it appears.12 Evidently, these OLM-based lectionaries are not identical except in their common shape and approach to the public reading of the Bible.

The Introduction to the BAS lectionary argues the virtues of ecumenical endeavour. It states that lectionary revision through ecumenical agreement on common patterns fosters Christian unity and adds to the richness of Christian experience.13 However, while the post-Second Vatican Council lectionary has formed the basis of ecumenical co-operation, there are a number of lectionaries which are similar, but not identical.14 Thus, what began as agreement on common patterns seems to have become agreement on identical practice, which agreement will eventually be reached only by continued commitment to ongoing use and revision.15 This admits that the ‘common lectionary’ is, at present, not common in this strict sense of identical practice.

These introductions focus primarily on the Sunday eucharistic lectionary. Nonetheless, some provisions are made for the practice of daily prayer, though in ways that depart from the common prayer tradition. The 1980 Lectionary made no provision for the daily offices but offered a two-year cycle of weekday readings for daily eucharistic celebrations.16 For Sundays, it allowed that if the principal service was not the eucharist but mattins, then two of the three readings appointed for the eucharist could be used, namely, the Old Testament lesson and the gospel, omitting the epistle.17 It appointed no Sunday office lectionary, but provided for the use of one of the other years of the three-year Sunday cycle when the same congregation is present.18 No instructions are provided to indicate which one of the other years’ readings could be used for which office. Presumably, it would be left to the discretion of the priest to decide which set of readings.19 In one church the lections for year C might be read at mattins, and year B at evensong; in another, year B lections might be read at mattins, year C at evensong. Such variableness makes it difficult to see how this could be common prayer and equally, how it could be ecumenical.

[p.32]

The BAS surmounts some of these difficulties by providing for a daily office lectionary20, which at least approximates the Prayer Book tradition of the two daily offices of Morning and Evening Prayer. It appoints three readings in a two-year cycle.21 Unlike the common prayer practice of two lessons for both offices, the BAS lectionary suggests the reading of two of the three lessons in the morning, and the remaining one in the evening.22 Should one persist in the older practice, provision is made to use the Old Testament lesson from the readings for the next year.23

The failure to appoint an Old Testament lesson for evensong means more than mere short-changing on evensong. It also considerably weakens the connection between the two daily offices. In the 1962 Prayer Book, for instance, the Old Testament lessons follow in course through both offices.24 In this way the Reformed intent behind the construction of the two daily offices, namely, to read through the greater part of the Old Testament in the course of a year, may be realized. On the other hand, the shortened pericopes for the offices and the lack of a complete set of evensong propers in the new lectionary mean that the greater part of the Bible cannot be read through in the course of a year.25

In general, the proposed revisions to the offices forsake two important features of the common prayer tradition: first, the reading through the greater part of the Old Testament at least once, and the New Testament more than once, in the course of a year, and second, the reading of two lessons at both of the two daily offices of Morning and Evening Prayer by which this project, central to the overall Prayer Book pattern of sanctification, could be realized. The claim of the new lectionaries to present a greater amount of scripture to be read on a regular basis than has ever been in our tradition pertains entirely to the eucharistic lectionary with its twofold provision of three readings, through the addition of an Old Testament lesson, and a three-year cycle of readings. But even this merely quantitative assertion must be seriously questioned.27

The 1980 Introduction makes the additional remarkable claim that the three-year Sunday lectionary “allows the presentation of all major scriptural themes”; something that had not been possible before with either the Sunday eucharistic or office lectionaries.”28 How can such a claim be upheld? The Prayer Book office lectionary reads through the Bible at least once in the course of a Year.29 The Sunday office lectionary appoints a set of two readings for both Morning and Evening Prayer according to a two-year cycle;30 the eucharistic lectionary presents the ordered sequence of saving doctrine and the moral and practical application of the same.31 We must ask what major scriptural themes are excluded from this Prayer Book programme. Major scriptural themes — all major scriptural themes – would surely concern all that pertains to salvation.32 Thus, such a claim suggests that the Prayer Book lectionary actually fails to present all that is necessary to salvation. Such a claim is clearly unwarranted.

The BAS Introduction suggests as well that the daily office lectionary can be used at weekday celebrations of the eucharist for which no readings are provided in the lectionary.33 But what does this mean for those who say their offices and attend one or more weekday celebrations? Moreover, the BAS lectionary provides another set of weekday readings which in the 1980 Lectionary were intended for use at weekday celebrations of the Holy Eucharist.34 They are now allowed for use either at the offices or the eucharist. Consequently, there may be in use two different daily office lectionaries, both of which may be also used at daily celebrations of the eucharist. But beyond even these provisions the BAS Introduction announces a third: “a shortlist of psalms and readings for use as required, e.g., at offices on days when the daily office lectionary has been used at the eucharist, in time of haste, etc.”35

Thus, with the adoption for use of the Book of Alternative Services, the practice of daily common prayer has been seriously undermined. Only the Prayer Book remains to provide a schedule of intended common readings for the daily offices: the BAS options mean the forsaking of this significant dimension of common prayer. No doubt these revisions are impelled by pastoral concern, but it is pastoral concern for the expedient at the expense and through the forgetting of pastoral concern for sanctification.

[p.33]

No doubt, as is urged, these resources require creative imagination for use that will avoid confusion and needless repetition.36 They put considerable onus on the priest while allowing for considerable divergence in practice from parish to parish, from diocese to diocese, and between sister churches within the Anglican communion. It is again difficult to see how this can further ecumenical relations even in the sense of identical practice which the revisers so strongly urge. It certainly means the loss of common prayer.37

The 1980 Introduction sets forth the supposed limitations of the Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary. It acknowledges that, prior to the Second Vatican Council, there was a largely common eucharistic lectionary among Anglicans, Lutherans, and Roman Catholics.38 It argues, however, that it wasn’t quite common enough and that it wasn’t common by intent, only by accident.39 Their common source was the lectionaries of the middle ages which entered the sixteenth century liturgical books with little revision.40 We are told that both parish priests and biblical scholars have criticized these texts.41

It claims that “the two readings at the Sunday eucharist are usually quite independent of one another (despite the valiant efforts of many preachers to discover a common theme).”42 So much for the Anglican divines of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. So much for the homiletical and commentary tradition within Anglicanism. So much for the homiletical and devotional tradition of the Fathers, the Medievals, the Reformers, and the Counter-Reformers.43 Valiant but misguided, they have been dismissed with parenthetical ease. If that were not enough, moreover, it goes on to say that “in their present form the readings in the lectionary stand as landmarks of the erosion of the place of Scripture in the worship of the Church and of the triumph of the city of Rome in the development of Western liturgy.”44 We can, perhaps, admire the polemical vigour and lively use of metaphor in these astounding assertions. But beyond mere contentiousness, they are without foundation.

More parenthetical discrediting follows: first, the readings are all much shorter than the original and there are two rather than three for which Rome is the cause; and second, “the selection of a number of readings is based on word plays on the dedication or topographical surroundings of the Roman stational church in which the readings were first appointed for use.”45 These claims seriously distort the empirical observations and speculations of historical and liturgical scholarship. (See Appendix).

The BAS Introduction is somewhat more restrained in tone but argues mainly the same points. It suggests that there was a system of continuous reading at the eucharist which was supplanted “by a more arbitrary approach to selection, based not only on the themes of the day or season, but even on the themes of nearby festivals of local import.”46 It speculates that the readings in the Trinity season are unrelated because of their dislocation from their original order.47 It goes on to say, “it is difficult not to conclude that this scheme of readings, with its scanty use of the Old Testament and unrepresentative approach to the New Testament, provided a limited base for education in the Bible.”48 Thus, this Introduction presents a tamer, less inflammatory version of the 1980 Introduction, but at base remains tendentious and irresponsible. (See Appendix).

The BAS Introduction goes on to praise Cranmer’s work on the offices: “Since the offices became the most frequently attended services on Sundays for a long period in Anglican history, the shortcomings of the eucharistic readings were mitigated.”49 This is to damn Cranmer with faint praise. It assumes, without demonstration, the shortcomings of the eucharistic lectionary; it ignores the relation between the offices and the eucharist; it overlooks the coherence of the whole programme of the use of scripture in the common prayer tradition; it asserts the primacy of one form of eucharistic piety (Anglo-Catholic) while disparaging another (Evangelical).50

What is going on here? The arguments assume three things, 1 think: first, one service (the eucharist in place of mattins, eucharist, and evensong); second, three readings from scripture; and third, the self-evident truth of the superiority of continuous reading. In ignorance of the elements of common prayer, they assume what they advocate: one service,

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the Holy Eucharist,51 with three scripture readings — one from the Old Testament, two from the New Testament — and a course of semi-continuous readings, at least for certain parts of the year.”

What about the ecumenical argument? If adopting the new lectionary means the loss or destruction of our common prayer tradition, which is our defining character and principal contribution to the Church Universal, then how exactly is it ecumenical?

In my view, both arguments assume the loss of common prayer. They show ignorance of the place of the lectionary in the common prayer tradition. They show ignorance of its logic and coherence. They show contempt for its antiquity. They deliberately overlook its development.” In short, they attempt to persuade us to adopt the new by discrediting the old.

Part II

The Ordo Lectionum Missae (OLM), 1969, is the basis of the new proposed lectionary. For Roman Catholics, it represents the endeavour to establish a more abundant, more various and more fitting reading of Holy Scripture at the Mass than what has been available to them in their tradition.54 It provides three lessons for Sundays and feast days; an Old Testament reading, an epistle (or lesson from Revelation), and a gospel.55 It is based on a three-year cycle:56 years A, B and C, which are also characterized by the synoptic gospel principally read in that year. The principles which regulate the order of reading are thematic harmony and semicontinuous reading.57 One or the other principle is followed according to the time of the year.58 The principle of harmonisatio ex themate is generally used for Advent, Lent, and Easter; lectio semi-continua during ‘ordinary time’ which largely consists of what Anglicans used to know as Ephiphanytide and Trinity season.59 OLM claims, in particular, that the Old Testament lessons are chosen primarily on account of their correspondence with the New Testament readings, especially with the gospel, which are read at Mass.60

In these principles of the thematic and the semi-continuous reading of scripture, OLM attempts to contract into one service what the common prayer tradition accomplishes through the offices and the eucharist. The focus of OLM is entirely upon the eucharist, which accords with the devotional practice of the Roman Catholic Church. In order to present a greater and more various selection of scripture at that one service, a three-year cycle of readings has been required; even so, the whole corpus of scripture cannot be read through entirely in the three years. At best OLM attempts what our Prayer Book two-year Sunday office lectionary accomplisshes by offering a representative and comprehensively complete, so far as possible, selection of readings from the Old and New Testaments. Even with its three-year cycle and its three lessons, OLM cannot provide what Cranmer, the English reformers, and the subsequent Prayer Book tradition regarded as crucial to its devotional life, namely, the reading of the whole Bible on a yearly basis through the complementary practice of continuous reading at the offices and doctrinally thematic reading of the eucharist.

OLM contracts these two lectionary principles into one by dividing the church year between specific seasons and ordinary time.61 This results in changes to the character of the church year. In general, it results in a loss of the overall coherence and logic of the ecclesiastical year as that came to be more fully developed in the western tradition and, most especially, in the reformed tradition of the English church. The eucharistic lectionary as it appears in the Prayer Book offers a doctrinally comprehensive and thematically rich programme of readings for the course of the entire year. OLM‘s application of ex themate tends to reduce this seasonal richness to a single theme, but it is the application of semi-continua which especially results in the destruction of the doctrinal logic and systematic completeness of the church year. This is most apparent in the changes to the season of Epiphany, the three Sundays of pre-Lent, and the season of Trinity which had especially been sharpened and clarified in the Prayer Book development.62

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The readings for roughly half of the church year are ordered upon the principle semi-continua.63 Motivated by the desire to present a more abundant and more various selection of readings, OLM substitutes what one might call a quantitative logic for the more substantial or doctrinal logic upon which to order the reading of scripture. OLM‘s endeavour is to present a greater amount, rather than the whole of scripture; nonetheless, the force of the semi In the principle lectio semi-continua must be grasped. This principle often applies to all three readings in ordinary time; for, despite OLM‘s claim that the reading from the Old Testament is placed in harmony with the gospel, in practice, the Old Testament reading often follows a qualified semi-continuous course, at least in the BAS OLM-based lectionary.

The Old Testament readings are necessarily selected excerpts from books of the Old Testament. In year A, for instance, Genesis is read semi-continuously from the ninth Sunday in ordinary time through to the thirteenth Sunday in ordinary time; the passages, which are rarely whole chapters, are excerpted in order from chapters 12, 22, 25, 28, and 32.65

The liberal use of semi-continuous reading from the New Testament is even more problematic, and takes two forms. One form is the rather extended practice of simply excluding certain verses within chapters.66 The other is the lack of a complete reading of any gospel.67 Though there are a possible thirty-four Sundays in ordinary time, not one of the gospels is read continuously or semi-continuously through to Its conclusion. Perhaps nowhere is this more striking than with the shortest and most succinct of all the gospels, St. Mark’s gospel, which is read semi-continuously, but not through to its conclusion. The course of reading does not progress beyond verse 44 of chapter 12.

In year B of the three-year cycle, John’s gospel is used in the OLM-based lectionaries as a companion piece to Mark’s gospel. The project of semi-continuous reading is thus interrupted from the seventeenth to the twenty-second Sunday in ordinary time by a series of readings from the sixth chapter of John’s gospel — the bread of life discourse — which would seem to suggest the entrance of a eucharistical theme in the midst of the semi-continuous course of Mark.68

What occurs here, however, is an attempted collapsing into one of the thematic and the semi-continuous principles under the dominance of modern biblical criticism. First, evidently some biblical critics question the place of John 6 in the sequence of John’s gospel; thus, it is here removed from its gospel context and presented in utter isolation from its order.69 Second, under the sway of the synoptic problem, a parallel between John’s gospel and the synoptic gospels is here thought to obtain.70 In such a view John 6 picks up what is regarded as the original and primary pre-gospel narrative order, which both Mark 6-8 and Matthew 14-16 convey — the feeding of the multitude, the walking on the water, and Peter’s confession — and which Luke 9 also presents with the single omission of the walking on the water. Perhaps we have here the emergence of the gospel of Q in the lectionary! Those who have sought to account for the rationale of the common lectionary observe that “whatever may be the relation of John’s Gospel to the Synoptics, at least at this point we have a tradition that had already forged three stories into one narrative prior to the work of the Four Evangelists.”71

St. John’s gospel, reserved primarily for use in Lent and Eastertide, is also not read in its entirety over three years, even though it sometimes forms the gospel for each of the Sundays in the three-year cycle. Three whole chapters are omitted altogether — chapters 5, 7, and 8, though in year A, verses 37-39 of chapter 7 are provided as an optional gospel reading for the Feast of Pentecost. Chapter eight is probably excluded because of the dominance of the critical view that 7:53-8:11, the story of the woman caught in adultery, does not belong to John’s gospel, the pericope being absent from the most ancient manuscripts, though included in later texts. It nonetheless, of course, remains part of the canonical scriptures of the Church, and in its present place. In some instances, the sequence of verses in a given chapter are followed only on the same Sunday in all three years; for example, on Easter IV, John 10:1-10 is read in year A, John 10:11-18 in year B, and John 10:22-30 in year C.72

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The changes to Holy Week are particularly significant. They constitute a considerable departure from the Prayer Book practice of reading the Passion from all four evangelists each year during Holy Week.

Holy Week begins with Palm Sunday. Gospel lections from the Synoptics, plus a Johannine option for year A, are provided for the Liturgy of the Palms: year A, Matthew 21:1-11; year B, Mark 11:1-11 or John 12:12-16; and year C, Luke 19:28-40. The gospel readings for the Palm Sunday eucharist attempt over a three-year cycle what the Prayer Book provides yearly through the measured rhythm of Holy Week. The OLM-basedBAS appoints on Palm Sunday a different Passion narrative from the Synoptics for each year. In year A, Matthew 26:14-27:66 is appointed to be read; in year B, Mark 14:1-15:47 is appointed; and in year C, Luke 22:14-23:56. The provision of gospel lections for the Liturgy of the Palms, however, means the allowance and provision for much shorter readings at the Palm Sunday eucharist for each year. Thus Matthew 27:11-54, Mark 15:1-39, and Luke 23:1-49 are appointed as options.73

In all three years of the three-year cycle, readings from St. John’s gospel are appointed for the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of Holy Week at the Holy Eucharist: in order, John 12:1-11, John 12:20-36, and John 13:21-30. On Maundy Thursday, different gospel readings are provided for each year. In year A, and whenever the ceremony of the pedilavium is performed, the gospel appointed is John 13:1-15; in year B, Mark 14:12-26; and in year C, Luke 22:7-20. The traditional rendering of John’s passion (John 18:1-19:42) remains for the gospel lection on Good Friday in all three years. A shorter reading, however, is provided as an option – John 18:17-30.74

The OLM-based readings for Holy Week contrast sharply with the provisions of the Prayer Book. While all lectionary systems focus upon the reading of the Passion of our Lord, no lectionary succeeds in the provision of such a thorough and so concentrated and complete a reading of all four gospel accounts of our Lord’s Passion as the Prayer Book. Such a provision, moreover, serves to highlight the intimate relation between the offices and the eucharist as understood in the Prayer Book programme of sanctification.

In the Prayer Book lectionary, Matthew 26 in its entirety is appointed for the second lesson at Morning Prayer on Palm Sunday, followed immediately in course by Matthew 27 which is read as the gospel at the Holy Eucharist. The eucharistic gospel for Holy Monday is Mark 14, followed by Mark 15 on Holy Tuesday. Luke 22 provides the gospel for Holy Wednesday day, and Luke 23 for Maundy Thursday. John 18:1-32 is appointed for the second lesson at Morning Prayer on Good Friday, John 18: 33-19 :37 at the communion, and John 19: 38-end provides the second lesson at Evening Prayer on Good Friday.75 The Passion Narratives are presented in their fullness and completeness. No accommodations are made for shorter readings. The Prayer Book, as Geoffrey Willis observes, “gives a clear and complete reading in sequence.”76

Since one of the admitted principles of the OLM-based lectionaries is lectio semi-continua, the omission of whole chapters, the exclusion of whole passages within chapters, and the truncated reconstruction of scriptural texts, is most unfortunate, especially in a three-year cycle of readings. No doubt, the brevity of the pericopes accounts in large part for these lacunae. The result is an unsatisfactory reading of the gospel even in this three-year cycle. OLM invokes pastoral reasons for shortened pericopes and for avoiding difficult biblical texts, partly, it is claimed, because they present the highest literary problems, critical or exegetical — presumably according to the criteria of modern biblical criticism — and partly because they are too difficult to be understood by the people.77

The application of lectio semi-continua means a necessary loss of unity to the lessons since the Old Testament lesson, the epistle, and the gospel are often each read semi-continuously. It can only be by accident and not by intent that they would bear any relation to each other. While one of the main features of the new eucharistic lectionary is the appointment of an Old Testament lesson, the restricted form of this semi-continuous reading results in an haphazard and unsatisfactory treatment of the Old Testament. The application of lectio

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ex themate has equally not met with success owing to its overly simplistic use as a kind of proof text to the New Testament.

Anglicans have sometimes expressed discontent with the Sunday office lectionary in our Prayer Book, partly because of the enormous difficulties of providing regular Sunday worship in all points of a multi-point parish, and partly because of the expectations placed upon people to remember from Sunday to Sunday exactly where they are in a biblical narrative or argument. The new lectionary, at least in ordinary time, would appear to expect people to move more-or-less seriatim through epistles, gospels, and, rarely, books of the Old Testament, from Sunday to Sunday. But how practical an approach is this? Can one really expect people to get a sense of the movement and unity of a gospel or epistle or Old Testament narrative? How is that possible when the readings are spread out over many Sundays in ordinary time, including the lengthy irruption in the midst of ordinary time for the necessary observance of Lent and Eastertide, from which one is meant to take up whence one left off? Or is it really allowed that the gospels, for instance, do have an integrity and a unity to them? For, as has already been observed, OLM relies heavily upon modern biblical criticism, the essential premiss of which is the separation between scripture and doctrine.78 The new eucharistic liturgies would appear to re-enforce this premiss in the current fashion for placing the Creed after the sermon, rather than after the gospel.79

The inclusion of an Old Testament lesson and psalms in the eucharistic lectionary, however, does have its attractiveness. For Anglicans it would represent not so much a new thing as an additional and extended use of the Old Testament to that which is already present in the overall structure of the lectionary and in the structure of the public worship of the Church. Psalms, for instance, have been provided for use at the eucharist. In 1549 the introit psalm was conveniently printed with the collect, epistle and gospel of the day.80 Our 1962 Canadian Prayer Book appoints but does not print an introit and gradual psalm.81 The Decalogue and the Summary of the Law already provide some relation to the Old Testament at the eucharist. Nonetheless, an Old Testament lesson would make a welcome addition to the propers of the day. But surely this could be done without forsaking our well-ordered and comprehensive eucharistic lectionary; surely this could be done within the common prayer tradition of the doctrinal use of scripture.

An Old Testament lesson could be chosen in accord with the logic of the propers of the day and the season, as has already been done in the English Alternative Services: First Series (SPCK 1965). This drew upon a table of Old Testament lessons appended to the 1960 Book of Common Prayer of the Church of India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon. It provides an Old Testament lesson for each Sunday and holy day and where, in 1662 onwards, the ‘epistle’ had been an Old Testament lesson, it provides a new epistle.82 This work could provide the basis for a similar project in Canada. It would mean not the loss of the doctrinal integrity of our lectionary, but its enhancement. The provision of an Old Testament lesson could well be made within rather than, as with the adoption of OLM, outside the common prayer tradition.

The application of lectio ex themate in the OLM lectionary presents additional problems about the choice of the themes and the selection of readings appropriate to the theme. The choice is not always doctrinally comprehensive; it is sometimes restrictive. The theme does not always apply consistently to all three readings. The connection between the readings can sometimes be no more than the simple recurrence of a single word.

The observations of those who have produced homiletical aids on the common lectionary are most instructive. While often commenting usefully and thoughtfully on the particular pericopes, the commentators inPreaching the New Common Lectionary (1984) are unable to ignore the deficiencies of the thematic connections between the periscopes.

The theme for the Lenten lections in year B is covenant.83 While the first Sunday provides a kind of thematic unity in all three readings — the Genesis story of the post-diluvian covenant with Noah, the reference in 1 Peter to the flood, and the Marcan account of Christ’s baptism84, — the theme appears in the remaining Sundays only in a very general and

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inconsistent way.85 It principally occurs through the Old Testament lessons for the first, second, third, and fifth Sundays of Lent; it is submerged on the fourth.86

The second Sunday manages a connection between the Old Testament lesson, psalm reading, and epistle, but as the commentators observe, “it is not easy to recognize a traditional or thematic connection between these three readings and the Gospel lections.”87 On that Sunday two possible gospel lections are provided,, but neither of the options are clearly related to the other lections. The commentators make the most of the particular pericopes for the third Sunday of Lent, but do not attempt to argue their relation, being content to comment instead that “specific connections between the Decalogue in Exodus 20 and the New Testament readings for the third Sunday of Lent are difficult to discern.”88 The thematic relation between the Old Testament lesson and the New Testament lessons for the fourth Sunday of Lent also seems weak, possibly appearing more by way of contrast than by means of connection. Interestingly enough, it departs from the theme of covenant only to return to some semblance of the older lenten themes. The commentators are moved to understand these pericopes, especially the New Testament readings, in the light of the ancient character of this day, which was known as Laetare Sunday, even though the propers are not the same.89 The titles ‘Refreshment Sunday’ and ‘Mothering Sunday’ which popular piety in the English Church affixed to the fourth Sunday in Lent, on the basis of the propers, can no longer apply.

The attempted combination of harmonisatio ex themate and lectio semi-continua for the eucharistic readings has resulted in a weakening of the doctrinal strength and rhythm of the ordered pattern of salvation once presented through the course of the whole church year. The doctrinal comprehensiveness of the older eucharistic lectionary has been replaced with the looseness of the new. The common prayer tradition of the reading of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation has been usurped by the hypotheses of modern biblical criticism about the structure, order and integrity of biblical books. In some sense, no doubt, the doctrinal elements may all be there, but in a much less coherent, much less systematic, and much less comprehensive way. The loss of the integrity of the seasons of Epiphany and the pre-Lenten Sundays SeptuagesimaSexagesima, andQuinquagesima is particularly regrettable. The changes to the Trinity season are equally unfortunate.

Whatever the advantages of the new lectionary for our Roman Catholic brethren, if indeed it means the opening out of the scriptures more largely to them, OLM does not emerge out of the common prayer tradition, and remains incompatible with it. It represents for Anglicans not only the loss of the coherence and doctrinal comprehensiveness of the Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary, but also the loss of the fundamental and intimate relation between the offices and the eucharist.

Furthermore, while it may be possible for Rome to make such changes without impairing her doctrinal character, because that is resident not primarily in the liturgy but in the papal magisterium,90 the Anglican church can hardly venture upon the OLM enterprise without forsaking her essential and defining character, which is common prayer and its concrete embodiment in the Liturgy which is, properly speaking, the entire Book of Common Prayer.91

Overall, OLM and OLM-based lectionaries do not arise out of a tradition of common prayer and are inimical to that tradition. They presume and provide for a pattern of spirituality that remains apart from the Prayer Book pattern of sanctification. Most significant, from the standpoint of the common prayer tradition, is the weakening of the doctrinal logic of the ecclesiastical year as that has come to be developed in the Anglican church. Central to that development and fundamental for the practice of common prayer is the use of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation.

Part III

We come now to consider the Prayer Book lectionary. In one sense the reasons urged in the Canadian Church for adopting the new lectionary and the principles upon which it is founded compel us to such an enterprise.

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Though for no other cause, yet for this; that posterity may know we have not loosely through silence permitted things to pass away as in a dream, there shall be for man’s information extant thus much concerning the present state of the Church of God established amongst us.92

So wrote Hooker in defense of the doctrine and polity of the Church of England against her detractors and promoters of radical projects in his day. And, certainly, today there has been a forgetting of the order of the Prayer Book lectionary, and a forgetting of the pattern of common prayer within which the lectionary is set; things have been permitted to pass away as in a dream. But in another sense, and perhaps a profounder one, we are compelled to this enterprise because in God’s providence there is a remembering, a discovering as new something which is old, a re-thinking of older things but in a fresher, more vigorous, and newer light. After the waters of Lethe, we drink of the stream of Eunoë.93

The reading of scripture not only forms the basis of common prayer but also belongs to its essential structure and purpose. The lectionary functions within the Prayer Book’s systematic and coherent programme of sanctification which is firmly built upon the principle of justification. Thus Hooker writes:

There is a glorifying righteousness of man in the world to come: and there is a justifying and a sanctifying righteousness here. The righteousness, wherewith we shall be clothed in the world to come, is both perfect and inherent. That whereby we are sanctified, inherent, but not perfect.94

Scripture is a doctrinal instrument of salvation because by it we learn that our justification is not in us, but in Christ, and that our sanctification is our being in Christ and His being in us. The reading of scripture increases in us the knowledge of divine things; it is an instrument “to work the knowledge of salvation in the hearts of men.”95 The lectionary falls within the programme of sanctification for the order of reading seeks to establish and to nourish within us that saving doctrine of Christ that “being made free from sin and made servants unto God, ye may have your fruit unto holiness and the end everlasting life” (Rom. 6:22).

The first homily in The First Book of Homilies (1562) urges the same teaching. Entitled “A Fruitful Exhortation to the Reading and Knowledge of Holy Scripture”, it provides a useful illustration of this understanding of the reading of scripture in the life of the Church.96The homily teaches that scripture contains all truth and doctrine necessary for our justification and salvation, and that the right and perfect way unto God is through the knowledge of Holy Scripture.97 This knowledge of God and of the end of man through the knowledge of Holy Scripture means that scripture “ought to be much in our hands, in our eyes, in our ears, in our mouths, but most of all in our hearts.”98 “For the Scripture of God is the heavenly meat of our souls; the hearing and keeping of it maketh us blessed, sanctifieth us, and maketh us holy; it turneth our souls; it is a light lantern unto our feet. It is a sure, steadfast and everlasting instrument of salvation”,99 ordained for the purpose of our everlasting life.100 The reading of scripture builds upon the sure and substantial foundation of Christ,101 God’s Word “which (by continual use of reading of holy Scripture, and diligent searching of the same) is deeply printed and engraven in the heart, at length turneth almost into nature.”102 For “in reading of God’s word, he most profiteth … that is most turned into it, that is most inspired with the Holy Ghost, most in his heart and life altered and changed into that thing which he readeth.”103

The lectionary is the means by which the purpose of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation may be realized within the Prayer Book programme of sanctification. The lectionary orders the reading of scripture according to the pattern of doctrine. Such is the basis of the coherence of the lectionary even throughout its long history. That coherence and logic of the lectionary emerges in part through the consideration of its historical development.

The history of the English lectionary concerns the lectionary in its comprehensive sense, with principal regard for both the daily office lectionary and the developments in the Sunday office lectionary. The eucharistic lectionary is fundamental to the overall coherence of the lectionary and must be given special attention. For the common prayer tradition, the daily office

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lectionary, the Sunday office lectionary, and the eucharistic lectionary form a comprehensive whole with each part dependent upon and informing the other. They are fundamentally connected, and it is in their relation that they form an integral part in the programme of sanctification. The doctrinal foundation of the lectionary appears most explicitly in the eucharistic lectionary which, in some sense, provides the logical centre around which the other two revolve.

The eucharistic lectionary itself is, for the most part, of remarkable antiquity; forged in the crucible of patristic doctrine, its more systematic character begins to develop in the early Middle Ages, passing into England in the form of the Sarum Breviary, though certain western and Roman uses had been present in England since the Gregorian mission of Augustine of Canterbury. The actual manuscript tradition from which the lectionary emerges dates from the late seventh and early eighth centuries.104 The Prayer Book tradition sharpens and completes the systematic order and coherence of the eucharistic lectionary to form a comprehensive pattern of doctrine. The daily office lectionary and the Sunday office lectionary are ultimately comprehended within that doctrinal pattern.

The practice of reading scripture in the Church originates in the Synagogue worship of Israel, which practice the early church took over and adapted for Christian use.105 The practice of daily reading seems to have begun in the eremitic tradition of the East from which it entered coenobitic forms of monasticism in the East and West; in the West the practice also appears in the religious establishments attached to various churches in Rome.106 The commentary tradition of the Prayer Book frequently quotes Cassian for the practice of reading Old Testament and New Testament lessons at Morning and Evening Prayer, but their origin can also be seen in the Bible readings at the Vigil services and at the Missa Catechumenorum.107 Further developments in the Hours services of the monasteries contributed to the background of the daily office and Sunday office lectionaries of the English Church.108

Within the tradition of monastic services it was mattins or nocturns (the medieval night office) which alone provided regular lessons.109 These lessons drew upon three sources: first, the Bible, in its sets of different kinds of books – the law, the prophets, the epistles, and the gospels; second, patristic homilies and commentaries; and third, the lives of the saints.110 While it had been the intent of the Benedictine rule to read through the greater part of the Bible in the course of the year, this intent increasingly failed to be realized, partly through the encroachment of a greater number of saints’ days upon the regular course of reading, and partly through the development of the breviary.111 The medieval breviary collected the various liturgical books into one book of devotion for the use of clergy and religious according to their rules. Such as enterprise, especially when it was desired to have a portable breviary, resulted in a tendency to fix particular lessons to particular days, and to shorten considerably the length of the passages.112 In any event, the continuous reading of scripture was considerably hindered by the frequency of saints’ days and holy days, each with their proper lessons, by the disjointed, discontinuous and incomplete form of the lessons themselves in the breviary, and by the extended use of non-biblical material.113

By the sixteenth century, dissatisfaction with the breviary prompted reform, of which Cardinal Quinones’ Breviary of the Holy Cross (1535) was the first instance. It was a rather ingenious, but nonetheless radical reform which attempted to establish a new scheme providing principally for the systematic reading of scripture. It endeavoured to read through both the Old Testament and the New Testament in the course of the year by appointing three lessons for each day: first, from the Old Testament; second, from the New Testament; and third, from either the life of a saint (upon a saint’s day) or else from the epistles.114 This Santa Croce Breviary initially grew in acceptance, partly owing to its shortness, and partly due to its primary focus on scripture. It concurred admirably with the desire expressed by Cardinal Girolamo Seripando, the Prior General of the Augustinians at the Council of Trent, that “in Missal and Breviary none but the words of Holy Scripture.”115 Ultimately, however, the Quignonium breviary failed to become the reformed breviary of the Roman Church. It was left for its influence to be felt elsewhere in England, and upon Thomas Cranmer.

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Cranmer’s aim was to provide a regular order for the reading of Holy Scripture for the purpose of instruction, not just of the clergy and religious, but for the whole church, clergy and laity alike. Scripture forms the basis of common prayer. The frequency of saints’ days observations, the discontinuity in the readings, the overgrowth of non-biblical material for lessons, and the sheer complexity of the rules determining what was to be read, such that “many times there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out”,116 contributed to the obscuring of what the reformers so clearly saw must be made plain and open, and, moreover, must be plain and open for everyone, “that the people (by daily hearing of holy Scripture read in the Church) might continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true religion.”117

“Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation” declare the Anglican formularies.118 It was essential that things necessary for salvation be openly declared unto all. The public reading of Holy Scripture, which is to say, the public or common order by which scripture is appointed to be read, makes us wise unto salvation by the steady increase in us of the knowledge of God. Thus Cranmer had to go farther than theBreviarum Romanum Quignonium in providing for a systematically complete reading of scripture for everyone. That going further was the development of common prayer which was grounded upon the open and regular publication of those things pertaining to our salvation. It was not a matter of reforming a breviary; it was the task of establishing common prayer, the basis of which was the reading of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation. As Geoffrey Willis points out

Even if the daily office of the breviary which is based on the ecclesiastical year, were not interrupted by any immoveable feasts having proper lessons, it would still not provide for the reading of the whole of scripture, as its lessons are too short, and also the variable lessons are confined to the night office.119

In the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI, 1549, Cranmer contracted the medieval hours into two services, mattins and evensong, each with two lessons, one from the Old Testament and the other from the New Testament. This remains the distinctive character of the offices in the common prayer tradition. The lectionary for these offices was based not upon the ecclesiastical year, with its moveable dates of Easter and other feasts, but upon the more fixed character of the civil year. Cranmer’s purpose was to provide for a plain and simple system for the complete and continuous reading of scripture in the course of the year.120 He reduced the number of holy days and, at least with the fixed or immoveable feasts such as the Christmas cycle and saints’ days, he found a way of handling them without the loss of any readings from the regular course.

Few holy days were provided with a complete set of proper lessons; first and second lessons were appointed for the festivals of Christmas, the Circumcision, the Epiphany, Easter Day, and Trinity Sunday, and for the feasts of the Nativity of St. John and Evangelist and All Saints. The remaining holy days either had no proper lessons at all, or only one, invariably a second lesson. The Feast of the Holy Innocents was the only saint’s day exception, having been provided with a first lesson at mattins (Jer. 31). When there was no proper lesson provided, the lesson from the regular course would be read.

The proper lessons were carefully chosen with a view towards the day itself and/or the season. Cranmer showed a fine sense for the relation between the Old and New Testaments in appointing proper first lessons (id est, Old Testament lessons) for Holy Wednesday evensong through the Easter Even mattins, and in appointing proper second lessons (id est, New Testament lessons) for the offices of Easter Monday and Easter Tuesday. The proper first lessons for those days in Holy Week were the ancient lessons for the services of Tenebrae and Good Friday.121 Lamentations was appointed for evensong on Wednesday, mattins and evensong on Thursday, and mattins on Easter Even, while Genesis 22 and Isaiah 53 were appointed for the mattins and evensong of Good Friday.

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Cranmer’s daily office lectionary allowed for the reading of most of the Old Testament and Apocrypha once, and for the reading of the New Testament, excluding Revelation, thrice in the course of the year. The Old Testament was read seriatim at the first lessons of both mattins and evensong, beginning in January with Genesis. Also beginning in January was the course of New Testament reading, which was divided between mattins and evensong. At mattins only the gospels, beginning with Matthew, and Acts were read, while at evensong the epistles, beginning with Romans, were read. At both mattins and evensong, the cycle would be repeated three times.

In the case of both the Old Testament and the New Testament, the readings followed the order of the books in the Bible, with one very important exception: Isaiah was not read in its place in the biblical order but was reserved for late November through December so as to attend the season of Advent. Bishop Anthony Sparrow observes: “the Prophet Esay being the most Evangelical Prophet most plainly prophesying of Christ, is reserved to be read a little before Advent.”122 The retention of this ancient practice anticipates in a way the eventual return of the lectionary to the order of the ecclesiastical year.

Thus Cranmer’s 1549 lectionary provides the basis for all subsequent lectionary developments within the common prayer tradition by establishing the two offices of mattins and evensong, by appointing two lessons, an Old Testament and a New Testament lesson, for each office, by composing a comprehensive and continuous system of scripture reading based upon the order of the civil year. The daily office lectionary remained unchanged in these three essentials until the revisions of 1871 and 1922, which in 1922 resulted in an important modification: namely, the ordering of the lectionary upon the ecclesiastical year rather than upon the civil year. In some sense that was the logical outcome of a development which had its earliest beginnings in the 1559 Prayer Book lectionary.

In the matter of the daily office lectionary, the second Prayer-Book of Edward VI, 1552, made only minor changes and alterations, such as replacing the Lamentations readings in Holy Week with lessons from Hosea, Daniel, Jeremiah, and Zechariah.123 Indeed, until 1871 all the subsequent Prayer Book revisions left the essential structure of Cranmer’s 1549 lectionary intact, content to advise only minor alterations.124 The Elizabethan Prayer-Book of 1559 marked the beginning of a new development — a post Cranmerian development.

The Cranmerian lectionaries had appointed no proper lessons for Sundays; instead, the lessons appointed for the particular calendar days in the month were followed. The 1559 Prayer-Book inaugurated the process of providing proper lessons for all the Sundays, saints’ days, and holy days in the ecclesiastical year. Consequently, those few saints’ days and holy days which had been provided with proper second lessons in the 1549 lectionary were now adorned with a full set of propers.

The provision of first lessons for Sundays introduces another programme of scripture reading: it marks the beginning of a Sunday office lectionary which runs its course alongside and complementary to the daily office lectionary. Ultimately, both are comprehended within the doctrinal pattern of the Church year.

The propers for the Sunday offices were chosen with regard for the character of the seasons in the ecclesiastical year. Isaiah was read as the first lesson throughout the Sundays of Advent, Christmas, and Epiphany, thereby complementing the reading of Isaiah appointed in the offices during Advent and Christmas-tide. That sort of correspondence between the Sunday office, the daily office, and the Church year naturally furthered the desire to make the relation more explicit for the whole year. In the 1559 Prayer-Book, Genesis was begun to be read on Septuagesima Sunday, thereby recovering the older patristic and medieval practice appropriate to the season and preparing the way for the reading of Genesis in the daily office

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lectionary when it eventually came to be re-ordered upon the pattern of the ecclesiastical year.

The 1559 Prayer-Book provided proper first lessons for all Sundays. The 1561, 1604, and 1662 Prayer Books made only minor changes, with 1662 making provision for second lessons on certain holy days. The year 1871 marks the first major revision to the lectionary.

The 1871 lectionary was the product of a committee under the chairmanship of Bishop Samuel Wilberforce.125 In some ways this revision is more notable for what it did not do, than for what it did. It did not complete the Sunday propers by providing second lessons for every Sunday at both offices. It did not complete the saints’ days propers by providing second lessons. It did not reorganize the lectionary according to the pattern of the ecclesiastical year.

Nonetheless, it did provide some second lessons. It did introduce a series of alternative first lessons for Sunday evensong,126 the origin, perhaps, of the year I and year II readings in our present Prayer Book. It did provide an alternative second lesson at evensong for those feasts which had proper second lessons. But it also significantly altered the reading of the New Testament in the daily offices by cancelling the division Cranmer had made in 1549 between the reading of the gospels and Acts at mattins and the epistles at evensong. It restored the reading of Revelation by appointing it to be read after December 17th sequentially at Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer, thereby insuring that Revelation would be read once in the course of the year. Whereas Cranmer’s system read through the New Testament (minus Revelation) three times in the course of the year, the 1871 lectionary read through the New Testament twice, with the exception of Revelation, which was read once. It sharply cut back the readings from the Apocrypha. But above all, the 1871 lectionary gave impetus to the demand for the re-ordering of the lectionary upon the pattern of the ecclesiastical year, rather than the civil year. Cranmer’s scheme of reading, based upon the civil or calendar year, accomplished admirably his intent to provide for a continuous and complete programme of scripture reading, and complemented the noble aim of establishing the godly commonwealth, but it could not avoid the necessary collision between the daily office system and the system of the Sunday offices which had emerged subsequently.

The older Prayer Book commentators well understood the doctrinal content and use of scripture both in the overall logic of the Christian year and in the complete and continuous reading of the Bible.127 Organizing the reading of scripture according to the civil year, even taking account of leap years, seemed the most simple and most straightforward system for the complete reading of the greater part of the Bible in the course of one year. It was simpler than having to contend with the problems arising from the moveable date of Easter. The increasing demand, however, was to unite more fully and more completely the doctrinal pattern of the Christian year with the regular and ordered programme of scripture. It was desired to organize the reading of scripture according to the ecclesiastical year, instead of the civil year.

The possibility of arranging the daily office lectionary according to the order of the Church year had been realized in various Lutheran lectionaries of the nineteenth century and in the lrvingite lectionary of the so-called Catholic Apostolic Church, perhaps as early as the 1830’s.128 In Anglican circles evidently the Very Reverend Provost Vernon Staley of ‘Hierugia Anglicana fame had designed a proposed lectionary based upon the order of the ecclesiastical year in his book The Revision of the Lectionary.129

In a certain way, the main accomplishment of the 1871 lectionary was the impetus it gave towards two things: first, the establishment of a fully developed Sunday office lectionary; and second, the reordering of the daily office lectionary upon the principles of the ecclesiastical year.

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In Canada, the itch for Prayer Book revision began in the 1890’s, coincident with the establishment of the General Synod of Canada in 1893.130 At first an Appendix to the Prayer Book was proposed and duly prepared under the chairmanship of Archbishop Hollingworth Tully Kingdon of Fredericton, assisted by Dean Partridge.131 It got so thoroughly killed at the 1905 General Synod — the Rev. Dyson Hague was said to have knocked it stiff,132 — that years later no copy of it could be found, until one was discovered by Archdeacon Frederick W. Vroom of King’s College, washed up at his feet on the shores of the St. Croix River in New Brunswick, having been carried there by the tides of the Bay of Fundy.133 One may wonder if that isn’t likely to be the fate of our present Canadian Prayer Book – thrown up on the beach with the rest of us beached whales!

In 1911 General Synod permitted the process of Prayer Book revision.134 The Calendar and Lectionary Committee was pan-Canadian under the chairmanship of Archbishop Worrell of Nova Scotia.135 Between the two projects — establishing a coherent and complete Sunday office, and re-ordering the lectionary according to the course of the ecclesiastical year — the Canadian committee chose the former, rather than the latter or both. For it was their leading principle “that the most outstanding portions of Holy Scripture should be provided for the Sunday lections.”136 Consequently, a larger place than in any former lectionary was given to the prophetical writings, and greater use was made of the Wisdom literature.137 But more important was the matter of the selection of the Sunday office New Testament lections. According to Armitage, the committee determined that from Advent to Trinity the morning lessons were to be taken from the gospels so as to set out the story of our Lord’s life; the morning lessons from Trinity to Advent were passages in the epistles and in Revelation chosen in accord with the teaching of the collect, epistle and gospel of the day.138 The evening lessons from Advent to Trinity were chosen from the epistles and Revelation according to the doctrinal character or movement of the church season; from Trinity to Advent, gospel fections were chosen, focusing in the main upon our Lord’s teaching, deeds, and miracles.139

This lectionary was presented to General Synod in 1915 where it received approval and was circulated to the Provincial Synods for deliberation.140 Meanwhile, in England, a committee had been formed to draw up a revised lectionary based upon the ecclesiastical year.141 Their report came out in 1917. Back in Canada, the Provincial Synod of the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada, meeting in 1918, considered the 1915 draftbook, and among a number of recommendations and resolutions requested “that the daily calendar be arranged upon the basis of the ecclesiastical year rather than the civil year.”142

Confronted with the English development, Archbishop Worrell himself argued against the adoption of the 1915 Canadian in favour of the 1918 English.143 Worrell noted that in the matter of prophetical writings, the relation of New Testament lessons to the church season and to the epistle and gospel of the day, and the appointment of alternative lessons, the two committees had been working, though independent of each other, nonetheless along the same lines.144 Worrell acknowledged that the chief weakness of the 1915 Canadian Lectionary was that “it dealt only with Sunday lessons.”145 But the principal problem of the 1915 Canadian proposal was that the lectionary was ordered upon the civil year while, at the same time, the Sunday propers were completed, thereby exacerbating the felt tension between the Sunday and saints’ day services and the daily offices. Thus the 1918 English lectionary, officially called the 1922 lectionary, became the lectionary of the official 1922 Canadian Prayer Book.

The principal features of the 1922 lectionary are outlined by Chairman of the Joint Committee, the Bishop of Ely, Dr. Chase. They were twofold: first, the lectionary was based upon the ecclesiastical year rather than the civil year; second, it provided a complete Sunday office lectionary.146 The 1922 lectionary was a significant achievement, but it was a revision which took place within the common prayer tradition and served to strengthen and make more explicit the doctrinal basis of the use of scripture within that tradition.

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In the Sunday office lectionary, the reading of the Old Testament combined the ancient custom of assigning certain books to certain seasons with the reading of books more-or-less in course.147 Thus, on the First Sunday in Advent through to the Second Sunday after Epiphany, passages from Isaiah are appointed. For the remaining Sundays after Epiphany, which after the third Sunday are variable according to the date of Easter, a series of minor prophets, beginning with Hosea, are read. Again, following the ancient practice which the 1559 book had also recovered, the Pentateuch was begun to be read on Septuagesima Sunday. The historical books followed in their biblical order from the first Sunday after Trinity until the fourteenth Sunday. The prophets Daniel, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel are read from the evensong of Trinity Fourteen through to the evensong of Trinity Twenty-two. Lessons from Proverbs are appointed for the remaining Sundays after Trinity, three of which are variable again according to the date of Easter.148

The lectionary provided alternative first lessons for the Sunday offices in order to promote an acquaintance with the more unfamiliar parts of the Old Testament, and to provide occasions for readings from the Apocrypha.149 The latter provision was subsequently removed from the Canadian 1918 Prayer Book.150 This overall programme of alternative lessons ultimately coalesced to form the year I/year II practice.

The appointment of Sunday office second lessons endeavoured to combine the provision for the reading of as much of the New Testament as possible with “variety for successive years and for congregations differing in character. “151 Alternative second lessons were also provided.

The daily office lectionary, now based upon the ecclesiastical year, follows more-or-less closely the Sunday office lectionary. The reading of Isaiah and the minor prophets in the Sundays of Advent, Christmas, and Epiphany is attended by the continuous reading of Isaiah and the minor prophets in the daily cycle.152 With Septuagesima, the Heptateuch is begun to be read both in the Sundays and on weekdays, followed by historical, prophetical, and sapiential books.153 The weekday pattern of Old Testament lessons at the daily offices is of ancient origin, reaching back to the seventh and eighth century readings at the Roman night office.

The arrangement of New Testament lessons approximates in some ways Cranmer’s division between mattins and evensong. If at mattins a gospel reading is used, then at evensong a lesson from either Acts or the epistles or Revelation is read.154 The synoptic gospels are read through at least once in the course of the year, while John is read twice.155 The logic of the seasons also obtains in the appointment of the New Testament lessons: on the weekday evensongs between Trinity Sunday and Trinity Eleven, readings from the synoptic gospels are chosen so as to form a more-or-less continuous narrative of our Lord’s life — a harkening back to the custom of the old gospel harmonies.156 Thereafter St. John’s gospel is read. Acts is appointed for Eastertide. The epistles of St. Paul are read not in their biblical order, but in some sort of accord with the chronological reconstruction of biblical criticism.157 Hebrews is appointed for Ascensiontide, beginning to be read at evensong – a very appropriate and sound provision.158 It constitutes one of the many examples of the coherence of the daily office lectionary and the Sunday office lectionary within the comprehensive doctrinal structure of the ecclesiastical year.

The 1922 lectionary forms the basis of the subsequent Prayer Book lectionaries, having brought together into a more explicit and more comprehensive unity the daily office, Sunday office, saints’ days, and eucharistic lectionaries. It forms the basis in essentials for the lectionary contained in our 1962 Prayer Book. That lectionary, however, was once again not a product of the Canadian Church, for with some exceptions, it is, in fact, the revised English lectionary of 1955 which we adopted in our 1959 revision.159

The 1955 lectionary remained in essentials that of the 1922 lectionary, but some changes were introduced which deserve comment. They assist in showing the instructional and formative character of the Prayer Book lectionary tradition, especially in its now fully

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developed form. The most interesting development appears in the daily office readings for the early part of the Trinity season.

In the eighth century, the season after Pentecost had not taken systematic shape according to the ecclesiastical year, but was loosely arranged according to the Sundays and weeks of each month.160 It provided a general arrangement, however, for the reading in order of the four books of Kings, Chronicles, and the sapiential books for June, July and August (roughly), and then in September and October Job, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Maccabees, followed in October and November by Ezekiel, Daniel, and the twelve minor prophets.161 This ancient practice informed the 1922 lectionary which, following the ecclesiastical year, appoints the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles beginning in Trinity week, followed by Jeremiah, who is thought to enter into the history at this point, then by Ezekiel as an exilic poet, followed by the post-exilic historians Ezra and Nehemiah with chronologically appropriate extracts from the restoration prophets Zechariah and Haggai who are removed from the order of minor prophets after Epiphany to be inserted here. Then follows Daniel, Esther, I Maccabees and the sapiential books — Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes. The Apocryphal works Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Baruch, and Wisdom complete the Trinity season cycle.162

The 1955 lectionary has dislocated this order by providing for the reading of Job and Proverbs at the beginning of the Trinity season, thus placing the historical cycle, more-or-less as it was in 1922, several weeks later.163 Other changes involve inserting Ecclesiastes, I Maccabees, and Ecclesiasticus after the historical/prophetical sequence, removing Tobit and Baruch to the variable week of Epiphany VI, and retaining Wisdom for the week of the Sunday Next Before Advent. The biblical order of the minor prophets In the first four weeks after Epiphany is altered in favour of what appears to be a historical re-ordering according to the lights of biblical criticism.164

The placing of Job and Proverbs for the weeks immediately following Trinity Sunday helps to emphasize the more clearly articulated doctrinal character of the Trinity season as it has developed in the overall Prayer Book tradition. That we should move from the celebration and vision of God in Himself to the Old Testament sapiential argument of the book of Job, which is concerned with the knowledge and vision of God and that in relation to human acts, earthly circumstances, and ultimately creation, seems most appropriate. That we then should move to the book of Proverbs, with the concern for the practical and moral wisdom grounded upon the fear and knowledge of God, seems equally apposite. Together these works, seen in the divine light of the Trinity, suggest the unity of contemplation and activity which is the truth of our life in the Spirit.

The historical development of the lectionary shows something of the underlying coherence and logic of the use of scripture in our Anglican tradition. The establishment of the two daily offices, each with two lessons (from the Old and New Testaments), the emergence of a Sunday office lectionary, and the ordering of all the scripture readings upon the course of the ecclesiastical year bring out more clearly the doctrinal use of scripture. The reading of scripture is so ordered to make us “wise unto salvation”, to habituate in us things divine, and this according to the ordered presentation of saving doctrine.

We have seen the connection and mutual dependence of the daily office lectionary and the Sunday office lectionary. The whole Prayer Book is composed of such interdependent parts forming a comprehensive pattern of spirituality and devotion. We have seen the influence of the church seasons upon the lectionaries, the increasing demand to make explicit the order of the church year as the principle for the reading of scripture. It remains to consider that order as it appears both in the tradition of commentators upon the Prayer Book, and in the eucharistic lectionary.

There is a remarkably extensive and, to my mind, incredibly rich tradition of commentaries on the Prayer Book within our church from the sixteenth century right through to our own day. For, as always, there was a need to defend and to explain the Prayer Book against

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detractors and malcontents, but the very excellence of the Prayer Book itself excited comment and prompted the desire to understand its structure.165

For the most part, that tradition is very clear about the unity, coherence, and purpose of our lectionary. Thus Thomas Comber urges three reasons for the reading or hearing of Holy Scripture in the daily offices of the Church: first, the excellence of scripture for that it is “the Revelation of the whole will of God, so far as is necessary for our Salvation”; second, God’s providential care in having ordained them for our good, adapting himself to our understanding so as to lay down “all necessary and fundamental truths so clearly”; and third, the care of the Church in fitting them “so to our use that there is nothing wanting to make us wise to salvation.”166

The commentators are especially clear about the coherence of the eucharistic lectionary, which manifested so evidently a logical and doctrinal pattern of salvation. The contemporary notion that the collects, epistles, and gospels have no necessary connection or relation would not be favourably entertained by these scholars. Indeed, replies Thomas Bisse, “these old imputations cast upon it, as being a dead letter and a heap of tautologies, can have no foundation, but in ourselves.”167 For, he explains,

Epistles and Gospels are not cast into our Liturgy at random, or as it should happen; but are placed every one in its order, being suited severally to their proper days, and all jointly to the Seasons, which come between and are govern’d by these cardinal or great Festivals.168

It was the order of the Christian year, built around these cardinal and great festivals, which gave coherence and sense to the eucharistic propers. But what exactly was that order of the Christian year, and what exactly was its purpose? Its purpose was to instruct by way of commemoration, and its order was fundamentally the order of doctrine.

For the common prayer tradition, the ecclesiastical year divides into two parts. Bishop Overall states the standard and received view:

The whole year is distinguished into two parts; the one to commemorate Christ’s living here in earth, and the other to direct us to live after his example. For the first part are all the Sundays, appointed from Advent to Trinity Sunday: for the second, all the Sundays from Trinity to Advent again.169

These two parts have their own distinctive character which also determines the character of the Sunday eucharistic propers within each part of the year. Thus Bishop Anthony Sparrow teaches that “the fitness of the Epistle and Gospel for the day it belongs to, and the reason of the choice, will plainly appear, if we observe that these holy festivals and solemnities of the church are of two sorts; the more high days, or the rest.”170

From Advent to Trinity the Church follows the doctrinal moments of the life of Christ. We celebrate the mysteries that belong to our redemption; we “commemorate the signal acts or passages of our Lord in the redemption of mankind.”171 This part of the year follows a logical doctrinal sequence, passing systematically from Christ’s incarnation and nativity, circumcision, manifestation, fasting, passion, death, resurrection and ascension, and the sending of the Holy Ghost, to culminate gloriously in the feast of the Blessed Trinity, which feast Thomas Bisse calls “the great Epiphany, being the manifestation of the Three Persons, as the other Epiphany is only of the Son.”172 This progress sets before us the course of saving doctrine. “All in the most perfect order,” says Bishop Overall, “in all which we see the whole story and course of our Saviour in manifesting himself and his divine mysteries to the world.”173 Bishop John Cosin echoes this teaching of his mentor, and emphasizes the appearance of this doctrinal order in the eucharistic lectionary:

So that the Gospels read through all this part of the year, have their chief end and purpose, to make us know and remember with grateful hearts, what excellent benefits God the Father hath communicated to us first by his Son, and then by the Holy Spirit, making us the heirs of heaven, that before were the sons of Hell: for

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which unspeakable goodness, we do most fitly end this part of the year, with giving praise and glory to the whole blessed Trinity.174

Sparrow further underlines this by speaking of this whole course of high festivals as “thereby running, as it were, through a great part of the Creed, by setting before us in an orderly manner the highest Mysteries of our Redemption by Christ on earth, till the day he was taken up into Heaven, with the sending down of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost.”175

The second part of the year, from Trinity Sunday until Advent, also has a distinctive character which informs the selection of the epistles and gospels. From the great pageant of doctrine summed up and celebrated in the feast of the blessed Trinity, the Church turns to the inward and practical application of those saving truths. Thus Cosin observes:

The Second part, which contains all the Sundays after that, being for our guidance in the Peregrination that we have living in this world, hath for it such Gospels in order appointed, — as may most easily and plainly instruct and lead us in the true paths of Christianity; that those which are Regenerated by Christ, and Initiated in his Faith, may know what virtues to follow, and what vices to eschew. Thus in the First part, we are to learn the Mysteries of the Christian Religion: in the second, we are to practise that which is agreeable to the same: For so it behoves us, not only to know that we have no other foundation of our Religion but Christ Jesus, born, crucified, and risen for us; but further also to build upon this foundation such a life as he requires from us.176

John Henry Blunt sums up the Prayer Book commentators’ regard for the systematic order of the Trinity season. “The Sundays of the Trinity may be regarded as a system illustrating the practical life of Christianity, founded on the truths previously presented, and guided by the example of our Blessed Lord.177 The gospels of the season set before us Christ’s teaching, his deeds, and his miracles, while the epistles exhort us to the complementary practice of a holy and virtuous life. It is a season to build upon the foundation of our faith “such a life as he requires of us.”178

Trinity season seeks the increase of our spiritual life, the perfecting of the inner man who stands on the doorstep of heaven, gazing into the homeland of Spirit which has been opened out to us by Christ’s sacrifice. And so Thomas Bisse writes:

… during that long interval from Trinity till Advent, the Epistles and Gospels have also but one general view and tendency, to raise in us the several fruits and gifts of the Spirit, and all holy and spiritual affections. So that all the service of this long course of Sundays may be considered as looking, either backward with a grateful regard to the Feast of Pentecost, from which all these graces, that make our services acceptable, flow; or forwards with an awful regard to Advent, the time of our Lord’s coming, for which those graces prepare us: either as testifying, that the Holy Ghost is come; or as fitting us by his aid against the coming of our Lord.179

The epistles and gospels of Trinity season have a relation to each other, but in a sense different from those propers within the doctrinal sequence of Advent through to Trinity. The difference lies in the character of the season: the doctrinal emphasis shifts from the royal progress of the substantial moments in Christ’s life to the life of holiness through the practice of Christian virtue; from the presentation of our justification, as it were, to the programme of our sanctification.

Sparrow observes that the gospels “are of the holy Doctrine, Deeds and Miracles of our Saviour, and so may singularly conduce to the making us good Christians, by being followers of Christ, and replenished with that Spirit which he both promised and sent. . .”180 He details the lessons of virtue “taught us by our Lord in these Gospels”:181

. . . to be charitable, heavenly-minded, repentant, merciful, humble, peaceable, religious, compassionate and thankful, to trust in God and abound with such spiritual qualities. . . “182

And these lessons are taught not only by word and deed but by many miracles:

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From his healing of the sick, and going about . doing good, we may learn to employ that power and ability we have in works of mercy and goodness. He that raised the dead, and did such mighty works, can be no other, we may be sure, than God and Man, the Saviour of the world, and able to protect us, even against death itself, to raise our bodies from the dust, and glorifie them hereafter.183

Such a programme is both pertinent to the time and completes the annual presentation of the chief matter and substance of the four evangelists.184 The epistles serve to complement this programme.

In the Epistles for this time there is an Harmony with the Gospels, but not so much as some have thought in their joynt propounding of particular considerations and those several and distinct, as the daies they belong to (for that belongs to more special solemnities) but rather as they meet all in the common stream, the general meditation and affection of the season.185

The character of the season provides the logic for the choice of scripture. The Church in the season of Trinity comes

. . . to use such Epistles, Gospels, and Collects, as suit with her holy affections and aims at this season. Such, namely, as tend to our edifying, and being the living Temples of the Holy Ghost our Comforter with his Gifts and Graces; that having Oyl in our Lamps, we may be in better readiness to meet the Bridegroom at his second Advent or coming to judgement. And this done in the remaining Sundaies till Advent, which in their Services are, as it were, so many Eccho’s and Reflexions upon the Myster of Pentecost (the life of the Spirit) or as Trumpets for preparation to meet our Lord at his second coming.186

 

Thus the church year is seen as a doctrinally ordered whole, admitting of distinct parts, comprehending particular seasons each with their proper movement and order, but in the dance of the year presenting unto us the whole of saving doctrine. Central to that presentation is the ordered reading of scripture; the doctrinal pattern of the year determines the use of scripture, for scripture is itself the doctrinal instrument of our salvation. By it we learn our justification and our sanctification.

The Prayer Book lectionary comprises the daily office lectionary, the Sunday office lectionary, and the eucharistic lectionary, including the propers for saints’ days and holy days. In their mutual inter-relation and interdependence, they form a comprehensive whole and present unto us a complete programme of sanctification. The lectionary sets forth the scripture of God as “the heavenly meat of our souls,” as the homilist says; “the hearing and keeping of it maketh us blessed, sanctifieth us, and maketh us holy, it turneth our souls; it is a light lantern unto our feet. It is a sure, steadfast and everlasting instrument of salvation.”187

This paper has attempted to show the unity and logic of our Prayer Book lectionary in all its parts. It has argued that the use of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation is the essential foundation of our common prayer tradition. It has endeavoured to show how that principle comes to the fore in the doctrinal pattern of the ecclesiastical year through which the various parts of the lectionary have their coherence and relation.

The Prayer Book lectionary deserves most careful and prayerful attention. We have really only to begin. This paper offers nothing more than a beginning. There is, no doubt, need for revision and room for improvement. After all, “there never was anything by the wit of men so well devised, or so sure established which in continuance of time hath not been corrupted.”188 But in this matter of the Prayer Book lectionary, that corruption need not occur except through our benign or wilfull neglect of what by God’s good providence has been given and entrusted to us. Our Solemn Declaration of 1893 reminds us to be determined “by the help of God to hold and maintain the Doctrine, Sacraments, and Discipline of Christ as the Lord hath commanded in his Holy Word, and as the Church of England hath received and set forth the same in The Book of Common Prayer.”189 At the heart of the Prayer Book lies the reading of Holy Scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation; this understanding cannot

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“pass away as in a dream.”190 Thus St. Paul exhorts us, “continue thou in those things which thou hast learned and art persuaded, knowing of whom thou hast been taught them” (11 Tim. 3:4). For as Bishop Anthony Sparrow, the Dean of that great school of Prayer Book commentators, reminds us in most timely fashion,

. . . this being the Church’s rule and method (as she hath it from the apostle) “that all things be done unto edifying”, that we may be better acquainted with God, and with ourselves, with what hath been done for us, and what is to be done by us. And this visible as well as audible preaching of Christian doctrine by those solemnities and readings, in such an admirable order, is so apt to infuse by degrees all necessary Christian knowledge into us.191

APPENDIX

The endeavour to determine historically the occasion for the choice of readings appointed for specific days has proven elusive and hypothetical. Much remains veiled in the mists of the past. In large measure one has primarily the lectionaries themselves to consider. For whatever occasional causes for the appointment of certain readings there might be, it is the examination of the lectionary in itself that reveals its logic, explains its character, and discloses its purpose.

What the Canadian revisers mean by original readings in their 1980 introduction is unclear. In the Prayer Book tradition, however, it is wrong to say that the readings are all much shorter than what appears in the medieval and earlier lectionaries. Considerably more are lengthened (approx. 35) than shortened (approx. 7),1

The source of the parenthetical remark of the Canadian revisers is most likely Peter G. Cobb’s statement that “the choice of readings was determined by various criteria — by their appropriateness for some ceremony in the catechumenate, by some catchword suitable to the season, by the situation of the Roman stational church or the history of their martyrs or by the proximity of the feast of some great saint honoured in Rome.”2 Cobb draws upon the work of J.A. Lamb and S.J.P. van Dijk, but he relies most heavily upon the more extensive studies of Joseph A. Jungmann.3

The concern of these scholars (et alii) is twofold: first, they seek to reconstruct the way scripture might have been read in the early church before the lectionaries of the western church were actually established, for as Cobb observes, “the first complete lectionaries date only from the seventh century”;4 and, second, they speculate that a form of lectio continua may have been in use, a speculation based upon:

  • (a) the synagogue tradition of reading the Law;5
  • (b) marginal markings in the text of early N.T. manuscripts which suggest the length of lessons;6
  • (c) sermons and commentaries of some Fathers upon whole books of the Bible.7

Lamb notes, however, that it is not certain that the earliest eucharistic readings were lectio continua.8

These scholars recognize, moreover, the signal contribution of another system of reading to the making of lectionaries, the system of selected or thematic readings.9 Both van Dijk and Jungmann comment on the preference or peculiar character of the early Roman liturgy for common themes in epistle and gospel lections.10 Jungmann in particular laments the erosion of the harmonic rapport between the epistle and gospel in subsequent Roman lectionaries.” The Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary preserves, promotes, improves and extends this practice.12

These scholars recognize that the main consideration for selection of readings was the development of the Christian year.13 Jungmann notes:

For feast days, those of our Lord and of the saints, the thought of the feast naturally dictated the choice of both Epistle and Gospel. The same thing was true to a rather wide extent also for festive seasons.14

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He proceeds to explain how this appears in Advent, Epiphany, Septuagesima to Easter, and Eastertide. This acknowledges that the doctrinal order of the church year underlies the eucharistic lectionary. With respect to pre-Lent and Lent, he also goes on to say, however, that “above all, it is the Roman stational churches with their martyr graves and local reminiscences that offer the key in many cases to an understanding of the choice of the pericope”15 and adds that “in some instances the proximity of the feast of a great saint honoured in the Roman church appears to have influenced the choice.”16

These speculations, however, do not forsake the overall concern for the logic of the feast or the season, nor do they mean disharmony between the epistle and the gospel. For example, Jungmann points to Lenten masses as instances where “this community of theme is still visible.”17

vanDijk offers two examples of Roman stational churches influencing the choice of readings. Both examples involve not Sundays but Thursdays in the second and third weeks of Lent. The gospel parable of Lazarus and the rich man (Luke 16:19-31) read at the stational church in the Jewish quarter of Rome, he argues, is chosen because they respectively symbolize the Christians and the Jews; the healing of Peter’s mother-in-law (Luke 4:38-44) was read at the station church of SS. Cosmos and Damian because, he argues, they were both physicians.18

Anselm Schott’s (OSBDas Vollständige Römische Messbuch also suggests that there may be a connection between the Roman stational churches where services were held.

Eine grosse Zahl der Fest — und Tagesmesse des Kirchenjahres tragen im römischen Messbuch der Vermerk: Statio von den frohesten zeiten an war man bestrebt, den Gottesdienst womöglich an einem Ort oder in einem Heiligtum zu feiern, das mit dem Feste irgendwie in Beziehung stand.19

In this view St. Paul’s account of fortitude in the face of tribulation is appropriately read on Sexagesima, since the stational church in Rome for that day is St. Paul’s.20

Another instance is the Thursday after the First Sunday in Lent, when the procession from the church of St. Nicholas to the church of St. Anastasia passed through a large marketplace. Consequently the gospel is that of Christ cleansing the temple of the money-changers and the merchants. While Schott thinks that this circumstance may have influenced the choice of the gospel, it does not form the basis of his pastoral explanation for the relation between the lesson and the gospel.

Wir suchen aufrichtig den Herrn (Lesung), sind wir doch lahm und blind (Evang.); allein wir finden im Gotteshause bei der hl. Messfeier Christus, der uns die Gesundheit schenken kann und in her hi. Kommunion unser Herz zu seinem Bethanien macht. (Evang.)21

There are various speculations about the influence the proximity of a great saint’s feast may have had upon the choice of pericopes. Jungmann records A. Vogel’s suggestions that the choice of Luke 5: 1-11, the great catch of fish, for the fourth Sunday in the season of Pentecost (Cdn. BCP, 1962, Trinity V) was induced by the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, those principal fishers of men; Luke 16: 1, the parable of the unrighteous but prudent steward, for the eighth Sunday (Trinity IX) and Mark 7: 31-37, the Ephphatha story, for the eleventh Sunday (Trinity XII), by the feast of St. Lawrence; and Matthew 9: 1-8, the healing of the lame man for the eighteenth Sunday (Trinity XIX) by the feast of SS. Cosmos and Damian, both physicians.22

K.D. MacKenzie speculates that the epistle and gospel chosen for Lent III may have some reference to the alteration of the Basilica of St. Lawrence; that the propers for Lent IV may relate to the station in Rome at the Basilica of ‘the holy Cross in Jerusalem”; that the propers for Trinity III and V possibly refer to the feast of SS. Peter and Paul; that the gospel for Trinity XV perhaps relates to harvest time; that the combining of SS. Philip and James derives from the sixth century consecration of the church of the Sancti Apostoli which contains their relics; that the propers of St. Michael and All Angels originate from those used at the dedication of the Basilica of St. Michael on the Via Salaria; and that the lesson for All Saints derives

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from that used at the dedication of the Roman Pantheon as the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and All Martyrs.23

Such observations suggest more that is tentative and plausible than directly causal. The idea that the nearness of great feasts may have influenced the choice of readings has a more probable basis in the ancient titles given to the various sections of Sundays after Pentecost than in the actual readings themselves. The nineteenth century Benedictine commentary The Liturgical Year, in remarking on the Sundays after Pentecost, observes that the eighth century Comes of Alcuin divides this part of the ecclesiastical year into five sections: the first is called ‘Sundays after Pentecost’ (Dominicae post Pentecosten); the second, ‘Weeks after the feasts of the Aposties’ (post natale Apostolorum); the third, ‘Weeks after Saint Lawrence’ (post Sancti Laurenti); the fourth, ‘Weeks of the seventh month’ (September-Lady Day, March 25, formerly marked the beginning of the civil year), and fifth, ‘Weeks after Saint Michael’ (post Sancti Angeli).24

These several sections persisted as late as the sixteenth century, though occasionally some of the titles varied according to feasts of local saints whose days of observation simply provided convenient dates for marking the progress of time during the long season after Pentecost.25 Equally, Schott observes that the preponderance of saints’ days in this period has resulted in its being called ‘Saints’ Time’ (Heiligenzelt) or the ‘Half-year of the Saints’ (Halbjahr der Heiligen).26

Schott does not argue that the proximity of saints’ days influences the appointment of propers for ordinary Sundays. He suggests instead that the saints’ days after Pentecost provided a convenient way of dividing that long succession of Sundays into smaller groups under the name of well-known saints. Another ancient custom from Rome of simply naming and counting the Sundays after Pentecost eventually replaced these sectional divisions.

Nach einigen der ätesten Helligenfeste dieser Zeit wurden früher die ihnen folgenden Sonntage benannt. Man kannte z.B. Sonntage mit der Bezeichnung “nach Peter und Paul”, “nach St. Laurentius”, “nach St. Michael”. So war die lange Reihe der Sonntage nach Pfingsten in kleinere Gruppen unter dem Namen allbekannter Heiligen eingeteilt. lm heute geltenden gottesdienstlichen Kalendar der römischen Kirche werden diese Sonntage gemäss einer andern alten Gewohnheit einfach “nach Pfingsten” benannt und durchgezdält.27

Pope Pius V (1504-1572) regularized these local usages into one practice in the Reformed Roman Breviary of 1568 by establishing the season as the Sundays after Pentecost.28

John Henry Blunt, a nineteenth century Anglican commentator, also notes in passing some of the same connections and allusions, but the sheer weight of the empirical, for the most part, has yet to overwhelm the logic of the doctrinal and the sense of the pastoral in his often useful though limited account of the Prayer Book eucharistic propers.29

Such scholarly observations are indeed interesting, suggestive, and sometimes helpful, but they are neither definitive or exhaustive; they may properly be included within the larger context of the church’s year for they by no means preclude the doctrinal order and movement of the seasons. In themselves they do not constitute a complete or fully adequate account of the principles which underlie the eucharistic lectionary, which inform its development, and which determine its character. In any event, the parenthetical claim of the 1980 Lectionary, that the selection of eucharistic propers is based on word plays on the dedication or topographical surroundings of the Roman stational church, finds scanty support; it remains simply without foundation. It discredits the older eucharistic lectionary by way of misrepresentation and distortion.

Similarly, the claim that the readings in the Trinity season are dislocated from their original order and are therefore unrelated requires closer examination. It may derive from the observation of Proctor and Frere that the epistles “form part of that dislocated series of readings taken in order from S. Paul’s Epistles.”30 For while the epistle readings in the Trinity

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season are not exactly lectio continua, the selection of readings from seven Pauline epistles in their New Testament order — Romans (Trinity IV, VI, VII, VIII), I Corinthians (Trinity IX, X, XI), II Corinthians (Trinity XII), Galatians (Trinity XIII, XIV, XV), Ephesians (Trinity XVI, XVII, XIX, XX, XXI), Philippians (Trinity XXII, XXIII) and Colossians (Trinity XXIV) — has given rise to the view that there was originally a system of lectio continua.31

That there was a system of lectio continua properly speaking, however, seems unlikely because there are not sufficient days to read through the whole corpus of even the Pauline epistles, and the ‘interruptions’ to the sequence are as old, for the most part, as the rest of the appointed readings.32 It seems that the Trinity season presents instead an ordered selection from a substantial number of Pauline and catholic epistles, together with appropriate gospel pericopes focusing on the doctrine, deeds, and miracles of our Lord. As Blunt states, “The Sundays after Trinity may be regarded as a system illustrating the practical life of Christianity, founded on the truths previously presented, and guided by the example of our Blessed Lord.”33

Procter and Frere’s dislocated series of readings cannot be taken to mean a lack of coherence, order and system to the Trinity season, since they admit a logic to the readings in accord with the character of the season. “The Epistles are a series of exhortations to the practice of Christian virtues.”34 They do not argue that the readings are therefore unrelated. Though the Trinity season, or the Sundays after Pentecost, was the last season of the ecclesiastical year for which lessons were appointed specifically for each Sunday, the Prayer Book tradition, nonetheless, has maintained and developed further the order and coherence of this season. This part of the church year, however, admits of a different character from that of the Advent to Pentecost sequence; a difference which the older commentators well understood. (See Part III, pp. 37-40).

In the Roman Catholic Church, on the one hand, the season of Pentecost has undergone a number of changes, resulting in the dislocation of the order of the epistles and gospels. These changes, which were the result of gradual developments during the High and Late Middle Ages, became definitive and settled in the sixteenth century Counter-Reformation reforms.35 In general, the difference in the appointment of particular readings derives from the various ways in which the Sundays after Pentecost took shape, especially in relation to the accommodation of octaves and what the ancient ordines call Dominica vacat, the ’empty’ Sundays after Ember Saturday Vigil ordinations with accompanying Mass.36 The eucharistic lectionary of the Prayer Book, on the other hand, remained in critical continuity with the older western tradition through the Sarum Missal, thereby avoiding some of the later dislocations and preserving a more coherent set of propers.

The English church avoided the dislocation of epistles and gospels for the time between Pentecost and Advent that occurred in the Roman church.37 Many of the problems claimed for in the season from Pentecost to Advent pertain to the order of readings found in their definitive form in the Roman lectionary from the sixteenth century onwards.38 They do not apply to the order of epistles and gospels found in the Sarum Missal and derived unto the Prayer Book. These dislocations explain the divergences between the pre-Vatican II Roman Church and the Church of England in the propers appointed for this part of the church year. The convergence of a number of factors perhaps provides something of an account for these differences.

What is now commonly known as Trinity Sunday, or the First Sunday after Pentecost, was anciently a Dominica vacans, being the Sunday immediately following the Pentecost Ember Saturday Vigil ordinations.39 When this practice fell into disuse, there was need for the appointment of propers for the First Sunday after Pentecost. Thus Luke 6: 36-42, beginning with ‘Be ye merciful, as your Father is merciful’, which had been the gospel for the Fourth Sunday after Pentecost — popularly known as ‘the Sunday of mercy’ — became the gospel appointed for the First Sunday after Pentecost.40 Subsequently, the remaining gospels for the time after Pentecost were simply brought forward by one week; hence the dislocation of the epistles and

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gospels, especially for the first part of the season.41 The Sarum Missal, however, avoided this dislocation. While this goes a long way towards explaining the divergences, it does not completely exhaust the complications.

The growing desire for the regular observance of the Feast of the Holy Trinity meant a gradual movement away from votive masses to the observance of the feast on the First Sunday after Pentecost.42 In England, the observance of this day as Trinity Sunday was established very early; in 1162 St. Thomas Becket of Canterbury instituted its celebration.43 Elsewhere in Europe the idea for the regular observance of the Feast of the Holy Trinity grew, but there was some variation as to the actual day appointed for its celebration.

Common observance was established in 1334 by Pope John XXII, who decreed the celebration of the Feast of the Holy Trinity on the First Sunday after Pentecost.44 The appointment of propers appropriate to that feast meant the displacement of those which had come to be read on the First Sunday after Pentecost. Consequently, the First Sunday after Pentecost was reduced to simply a commemoration at the Mass of the Feast of the Holy Trinity, the ‘mercy’ gospel, Luke 6: 36-42, appearing as the Last Gospel at High Mass instead of John 1: 1-14. But the epistles and gospels throughout the early part of the season remained in their dislocated order originally occasioned by the moving of Luke 6: 36-42 from the Fourth to the First Sunday after Pentecost.

The various titles given to the sections of the time after Pentecost gave way in England to the term Trinity season, with the Sundays being reckoned after Trinity, rather than after Pentecost. The early institution of the Feast of the Holy Trinity in England on the First Sunday after Pentecost meant the appointment of suitable propers for the day but without the consequence of disrupting the ordered relation of the epistles and gospels in the subsequent Sundays. The Sundays are simply numbered after Trinity. Thus the English Church avoided the dislocation of readings altogether, partly by establishing early-on the Feast of the Holy Trinity, and partly by maintaining the order and coherence of the eucharistic lectionary which it had received.

The BAS speculation that some of the epistles and gospels in the post-Trinity season were dislocated from their original order has no bearing upon the Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary. Such a view rather concerns the older pre-Vatican II Roman lectionary, especially after it received a more definite form in the sixteenth century. The Prayer Book tradition, by drawing extensively upon the Sarum Missal, altogether avoided this dislocation of the epistles and gospels. Thus it maintains an older form of the order of the Trinity season upon which it subsequently made improvement.

The BAS criticism of the Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary is misapplied; and by misapplication, it seriously misrepresents. Such misrepresentations certainly show that the Canadian revisers have not given the Prayer Book lectionary careful and thoughtful consideration. In their haste to embrace the new Roman, they have been quick to jettison the old Anglican.

Notes

Introduction

1 Stephen W. Sykes, The Integrity of Anglicanism (Oxford, 1978), p. 46.

2 Book of Common Prayer (Canada, 1962), p. 715. Hereafter cited as Cdn. BCP, 1962.

3 See Breviarium Romanum a Francisco Cardinali Quignonio editum, ed. J.W. Legg (Cambridge, 1888), pp. xix-xxxii. See also Geoffrey Cuming, A History of Anglican Liturgy, 2nd. ed. (1969; rpt. London, 1982), pp. 47-51; and also Geoffrey Cuming, The Godly Order (London, 1983), pp. 1-25.

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4 See Part I, n. 22 and n. 26, and Part III, pp. 38-42.

5 Richard Hooker, The Laws of Ecclesiastical polity, Works, Vol. II, ed. J. Keble (Oxford, 1841), p. 85.

6 The Lectionary (Toronto: Anglican Book Centre, 1980). Hereafter cited as The Lectionary, 1980.

7 The Book of Alternative Services (BAS) appeared in September 1985, subsequent to the presentation of this paper in Charlottetown in June, 1985. The preparation of the paper necessarily involved the use of the 1983 draft version of the BAS Lectionary. The draft took the form of printer’s proofs with sectional pagination. Since the BAS is now available, it seems more convenient to note all references according to its more complete and proper pagination rather than according to the numbering of the draft form. The lectionary in the BAS differs only slightly from the 1983 draft version. The lectionary is based upon the Ordo Lectionum Missae (OLM) of Rome (see n. 8) which has been amended by the (North American) Consultation on Common Text (CCT) and which has been recommended for trial use for 1983-1986 (Common Lectionary — The Lectionary Proposed by the Consultation on Common Texts (New York: Church Hymnal Corporation, 1983), p. 5, The introduction to the lectionary of the draft version of the BAS states explicitly the position of the CCT that an amended edition was issued “for experimental use between 1983 and 1986 with a view to a final revision in 1986” (intro., p. 02). Curiously, this statement has been altered in the actual BAS to indicate “a final revision around the end of the decade”. (The Book of Alternative Services Toronto, Anglican Book Centre, 1985), p. 263, hereafter cited as BAS). The 1980 Lectionary was essentially that of OLM. Serious criticism from biblical scholars about the appointment of Old Testament lessons, especially during Ordinary Time, has evidently prompted the amended edition of CCT which seeks to adapt the typological use of the O.T. with semi-continuous reading of parts of the O.T. (Common Lectionary — CCT, pp. 9-10), CCT seeks the harmonization and adaptation of the Roman Lectionary and its denominational variants, but apparently remains in fundamental agreement with its primary principles and assumptions. It remains to be seen, however, whether this amended edition, with its aim of identical practice, will be accepted by Rome and the other churches now using OLM-based lectionaries. The semi-continuous reading of the O.T. during Ordinary Time, moreover, still presents problems about the use of the Old Testament and about the overall doctrinal coherence of the BAS lectionary (see n. 64).

8 “Ordo Lectionum Missae” in Missale Romanum (Vatican, 1969), hereafter cited as OLM. I am indebted to Mr. Christopher Adier for providing me with a copy of the prefatory material of this document.

Part I

9 The size and resources of the Roman Catholic Church are cited as obvious reasons for the adoption of OLM. This argument of universality through Rome, however, is ironic as, at the same time, they complain that the readings in the older lectionary represent “the triumph of the city of Rome in the development of Western liturgy” and consequently present features which are “particularly Roman.” The Lectionary, 1980, p. 5.

10 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 6.

11 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 6.

12 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 7.

13 BAS, p. 263.

14 BAS, p. 263.

15 BAS, p. 263.

16 The weekday Lectionary provides two daily readings. The first reading is from the Old Testament in even years and from one of the New Testament writings

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other than the Gospel in odd years. The Gospel follows a one-year cycle. (The Lectionary, 1980, p. 18.)

The principles upon which this lectionary is constructed follow the general lines of the proposed Sunday eucharistic lectionary— a combination of thematic and semi-continuous readings.

During Advent, Christmas, Lent, and Eastertide, the two readings are directly related. During the rest of the year this relationship has been abandoned In favour of a semi-continuous reading of Scripture. (The Lectionary, 1980, p. 9.)

17 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 8.

18 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 17.

19 Some guidance would presumably have been obtained from the Order of Divine Service once this aid began to include the daily office lectionary readings.

20 The Canadian revisers tend to restrict the term lectionary to the Sunday eucharistic lectionary and regard schedules of readings for the offices as additional guides to the liturgical reading of Holy Scripture. This downplays both the relation of the offices to the eucharist and their intrinsic importance. BAS, p. 264.

21 BAS, P. 450.

22 BAS, p. 450. The older commentators understood well the importance of the two readings — one from the Old, the other from the New Testament — at each of the daily offices in the common prayer tradition. Hooker, for instance, recalls the ancient interest in the relation of the two Testaments and points out the pastoral significance for the programme of sanctification:

The cause of their reading first the Old Testament, then the New, and always somewhat out of both, is most likely to have been that which Justin Martyr and St. Augustin observe in comparing the two Testaments. “The Apostles,” saith the one, (Justin Martyr) “have taught us as themselves did learn, first the precepts of the Law, and then the Gospels. For what else is the Law but the Gospel foreshewed? What other the Gospel than the Law fulfilled? In like sort the other, (Augustin) “What the Old Testament hath, the very same the New containeth; but that which lieth there as under a shadow is here brought forth into the open sun. Things there prefigured are here performed.” Again, “in the Old Testament there is a close comprehension of the New, in the New an open discovery of the Old.” To be short, the method of their public readings either purposely did tend, or at least doth fitly serve, “That from smaller things the mind of the hearers may go forward to the knowledge of greater, and by degrees climb up from the lowest to the highest things.”

Here Hooker is quoting Walafrid Strabo. Hooker, Works, Vol. 11, pp. 75-76.

Thus the general Augustinian theme ab exterioribus ad interiora, ab lnterioribus ad superiora appears in the Prayer Book understanding of the sequence, order, and rhythm of the daily offices which are built around these two readings. And indeed, it applies to the whole programme of sanctification. Moreover, Augustine’s understanding of the integral relation of intellect and will, developed through the Middle Ages and Reformation, may be seen to appear in the commentators’ treatment of the pastoral significance of the office sequence: psalm, Old Testament lesson, Canticle, New Testament lesson, Canticle, Creed. See Richard Mant,The Book of Common Prayer with notes Explanatory, Practical and Historical from Approved Writers of the Church of England, ed. W. Baxter for J. Parker and F.C. and J. Rivington (Oxford and London, 1820), pp. 19-36.

Thomas Bisse argues the pastoral significance of the harmony and order of the readings in terms of the strengthening of the will and the enlightening of the mind. “As by this harmony of the lessons the faith of the hearers is established; so by the order, wherein they are read, the understanding is enlightened.” The Beauty of Holiness in the Common-Prayer: As set forth in Four Sermons Preach’d at the Rolls Chapel (London, 1716), Sermon 11, p. 57.

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23 BAS, p. 450.

24 While this is especially and almost invariably the case with the daily office lectionary, it also applies in large measure to the Sunday office lectionary for most of the Sundays in Advent and Epiphany, forSeptuagesima and Sexagesima, and for some Sundays in Eastertide. At other times the readings often follow seriatim from one Sunday to the next at the same office. Overall, the Sunday office lectionary principally follows the logic of the church year and within that, seeks to provide a large and doctrinally comprehensive presentation of both the Old and New Testament. (See Charles Wheatly, A Rational Illustration of the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1853), pp. 136, 137; see also Mant, The Book of Common Prayer, pp. 23-24.

The older commentators knew full well that not everyone would or could say the offices daily and regularly (see Mant, pp. 23-24). Thomas Bisse observes:

But one thing 1 must remind you, that on Sundays, the chief days of the assembly, the first Lessons are so wisely chosen out, as to contain all the most material and instructive passages in the Old Testament. By this method the Poorer Sort, who have neither skill to read the Scriptures, nor always leisure to attend the reading of them on the weekdays, even these have not only the Gospel preached unto them, but moreover Moses and the Prophets read to them every Sabbath day (The Beauty of Holiness, pp. 59-61).

 

This reference to Moses and the Prophets contains a nice allusion to the gospel parable of Dives and Lazarus (Luke 16:19ff) appointed for the eucharist on the First Sunday after Trinity. It implies a double meaning to the “Poorer Sort”. Not only does he have in mind the illiterate, poor-in-the-world but also the worldly, “certain rich man”. Through the Sunday offices all manner of men, in all manner of circumstances, have preached unto them the essential teachings of the Old and New Testament. The subsequent developments of the Sunday office lectionary sought to enhance this general concern by providing a set of designated second lessons for each Sunday and a two-year cycle of lessons. Moreover, in both Canada and England, the lectionary revisions that issued in the 1922 Canadian Book of Common Prayer paid particular attention to the further provision of readings from the Old Testament prophetical writings. See Part III, pp. 44-45 and n. 135.

25 An alternative office authorized for use In England in 1971 and presented in a modern English version in 1975 follows the 1968 Daily Office — an ecumenical production of the Joint Liturgical Group. Concerning the reading of scripture in the ecumenical Daily Office, Geoffrey Cuming observes: “A new lectionary was provided, with shorter daily portions, the OT being spread over two years, and the NT over one. The evening office has only one lesson; the Psalter is recited four times a year instead of twelve.” “The Office in the Church of Englland” in The Study of the Liturgy, ed. Jones, Wainwright, and Yarnold (Oxford, 1978), p. 395. For an account of the orderly reading of the Holy Scripture in the offices of the Prayer Book tradition, see Part III, pp. 41-46.

26 Geoffrey Cuming comments on the orderly reading of scripture as the basis of the pattern of the offices: “Doubtless Quiñones had provided the original inspiration, and the Lutheran orders may also have made their contribution, but most probably Cramer arrived at this pattern simply by putting into practice his principle of letting nothing interfere with the orderly reading of Holy Scripture.” See “The Office” in The Study of the Liturgy, p. 393. See also Part Ill, pp. 38-41.

27 See Part II, pp. 34-37, and notes 66 and 67.

28 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 7.

29 See Part III, pp. 41-43.

30 See Part III, pp. 45-46.

31 See Part III, pp. 47-49, and note 62.

32 See Introduction, pp. 29-30, and Part III, pp. 39-41.

33 BAS, p. 264 and p. 450.

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34 BAS, p. 264.

35 BAS, p. 264.

36 BAS, p. 265.

37 Interestingly enough, George Black of the Doctrine and Worship Committee repeatedly admitted that the proposed alternatives to the daily offices meant the loss of common prayer. (Clergy Conference, Diocese of Nova Scotia, held at the University of King’s College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, June 5-7, 1985.)

38 These churches “had eucharistic lectionaries which shared a significant number of common texts, although the texts themselves were not always read on the same Sundays.” The Lectionary, 1980, p. 5. In speaking of the Prayer Book from 1549 down to 1662, W.K. Lowther Clarke observes that “the Collects, Epistles and Gospels of the Temporale are for the most part those of the Sarum Missal, only nine of the Collects being new, while of the Epistles and Gospels, some are lengthened or shortened, and a few Epistles and two Gospels are changed.” Liturgy and Worship, ed. W.K. Lowther Clarke (London, 1932), p. 157. From 1662 the changes are equally minor but serve to illustrate and to emphasize the doctrinal use of scripture through the further development of the logic of the church year. For a fuller account of the changes in the 1962 Canadian Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary, see note 188. The antiquity of the eucharistic lectionary significantly antedates the Sarum Missal (c. 13th cy.), reaching back to the patristic and early medieval period. The variations among the aforementioned churches between Sundays in the appointed lessons are explained by reference to the further development of the church year from the early Middle Ages onwards. See note 40 and, especially, Appendix.

39 That there was a common eucharistic lectionary among these churches shows their agreement on essential doctrine, just as Dr. Johnson observed of Presbyterian (Calvinists), Catholics, and Anglicans, that though there is “a prodigious difference” between their external forms” yet the doctrine taught is essentially the same.” Boswell’s Life of Johnson as quoted in Norman Sykes’ Old Priest and New Presbyter (Cambridge, 1956), p. 1. When our Canadian revisers fault the older lectionaries as not being common by intent they would appear to mean that the intent was not primarily ecumenical in the sense of intending to do what the other churches were doing. In other words, it wasn’t common by the same ecumenical intent that informs the proposed lectionary; thus the old is judged by the standard of the new. To suggest that the older common lectionary is an historical accident overlooks the development of the eucharistic lectionary in the western tradition from the early Middle Ages onwards and impugns the work of the Reformers and the Counter-Reformers who attended to the eucharistic lectionary and made intentional improvements. In the case of the English Reformers, it meant making improvements to the eucharistic lectionary.of the Sarum Missal in accord with the programme of common prayer. Certainly their intent was to maintain critical continuity with the tradition. But by no means was it a matter of receiving unthinkly an historical deposit, as the juxtaposition of intent and accident would seem to imply.

The doctrinal integrity of the eucharistic lectionary accounts for its common use. The English and Lutheran Reformers did not intend to follow Roman usage because it was Roman, nor did they intend to break from it just because it was Roman; rather, they retained and improved upon whatever in it was intrinsically good and excellent. This was especially characteristic of the English reformation, which Hooker called a “moderate kind” Works, 1, p. 487). In accord with this Hooker would remind us:

We have most heartily to thank God therefore, that they amongst us to whom the first consultations of causes of this kind fell, were men which aiming at another mark, namely the glory of God and the good of this his church, took that which they judged thereunto necessary, not rejecting any good or convenient thing only because the church of Rome might perhaps like it. (Works, 1, p. 447).

Among those good and convenient things is the lectionary, which pertains to the public and common order of the church’s life. For

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. . . in truth the ceremonies which we have taken from such as were before us, are not things that belong to this or that sect, but they are the ancient rites and customs of the Church of Christ, whereof ourselves being a part, we have the selfsame interest in them which our fathers before us had, from whom the same are descended unto us. (Works, I, p. 445).

40 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 5. The ‘little revisions’ of the sixteenth century are, however, quite significant. They concern the sharpening and clarifying of the doctrinal pattern of the church year. This is especially true of the Sundays in Advent, after Epiphany, and after Trinity, though changes were made to every part of the church year. For instance, the revision made in the lectionary to the Sundays after Epiphany are particularly made in the lectionary to the Sundays after Epiphany are particularly important for the consideration given, first, to the ordered sequence of manifestations and, second, to the double duty which the lections for the later Sundays after Epiphany perform during the last few Sundays after Trinity as a kind of prelude to Advent. This development was continued in the seventeenth century with the provision for a collect, epistle and gospel for the Sixth Sunday after Epiphany made by Bishop John Cosin (The Durham Book, ed. G.J. Cuming (London, 1975), p. 109). This provision was included in the 1662 Prayer Book in order to avoid the repetition of the propers for the Fifth Sunday after Epiphany on the Sixth Sunday after Epiphany or for both the Twenty-fifth or Twenty-sixth Sundays after Trinity in those years wherein the date of Easter required one or the other expedient. Thus the rubric in our 1962 Canadian Prayer Book, p. 258. Cuming, moreover, observes with respect to the collect for the Third Sunday in Advent (generally ascribed to Cosin) that like the collect for Epiphany VI (also ascribed to Cosin) “it draws on both Epistle and Gospel, a point to which Cosin attached importance” (The Durham Book, p. 103, n. 145). Cuming records Cosin’s own view with respect to the proper collects used at the Holy Communion: “And ye Collect for ye day is alwayyes most properly used together with Epistle & Gospel, whereunto many times it relateth.” (The Durham Book, p. 137, n. 209, Part 46). “Cosin’s own collects always ‘relate to the Epistle and Gospel.” (The Durham Book, p. 137, n. 209, Part 46).

41 The new lectionaries are a product of modern biblical critical scholarship (The Lectionary, 1980, p. 6). They may be seen to incorporate some of the essential features of that scholarship; principally, the separation between scripture and doctrine insofar as doctrine is assumed to be an intellectual structure imposed upon scripture from without, rather than seen as emerging from within the content of scripture itself. Moreover, passages in scripture are often read or not read according to a canon of historicity, rather than doctrine. Generally speaking, in this activity the scriptures are divorced from the church who gave them birth and in turn was given birth by them. That dialectical relationship is the work of the Holy Spirit. For a more complete discussion of biblical criticism, see W.J. Hankey’s forthcoming article, “Preparing for a Post-Critical Theology: Biblical Criticism and the End of Contemporary Culture” in No Abiding City, ed. W.J. Oddie (London: SPCK, 1985). That parish priests have complained about the older eucharistic lectionary may simply mean that they have carried the biblical criticism they imbibed at seminary into their parishes. But the problem is more likely that in their training they have not been taught the history and use of scripture in the Prayer Book tradition. This is not to dismiss out of hand modern biblical criticism but rather to call attention to the consequences of making its assumptions that basis of the church’s use of scripture. The development of the lectionary in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, primarily the daily office lectionary and the Sunday office lectionary and only to a lesser degree the eucharistic lectionary, witness the utilization of modern biblical scholarship. It is used, however, within the common prayer tradition of the doctrinal use of scripture and is subject to that programme, rather than, as now, made the basis of the church’s use of scripture. It should be noted, moreover, that Rome has embraced biblical criticism after a long period of resistance, and that the OLM lectionary was produced in their initial excitement about

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modern biblical studies. Its naive acceptance of that scholarship is incommensurate with the directions that modern biblical scholarship is now taking in the increased awareness of precisely those assumptions which divorced scripture and doctrine, and which impugned the integrity of the biblical texts per se and the canon of scripture as a whole (cf. B. Childs, James Barr, J. Rogerson, G.A. Lindbeck, A. Lowth, Henning Graf Reventlow, etc.). OLM is regarded as an outdated and immature production; the substantial revision of it is now being demanded. This is especially true of the use of the Old Testament, supposedly one of great advances of the new lectionary, which, according to George Black of the Doctrine and Worship Committee, has been found inadequate by reason of an over-simplistic ‘proof-texting’ to the gospel pericope. (Clergy Conference, Diocese of Nova Scotia, held at the University of King’s College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, June 5-7, 1985). Yet the 1983 CCT amended edition of OLM which we have in the BAS explicitly sought to overcome this felt inadequacy by broadening the typological basis of the selection of O.T. lessons and by providing for a semi-continuous programme during Ordinary Time.

42 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 5. The obvious polemic of this hardly bears comment. Suffice to say that for the western tradition, and especially for common prayer within that tradition, the two readings are demonstrably related. Moreover, preachers who seek to make the connection explicit for the purposes of instruction do so not by imposing a theme on top of the readings, but by discovering the relation in and through the overall integrity of the Prayer Book’s use of scripture and the ordered doctrinal pattern of the Christian year. See Part III, pp. 47-49, and notes 40, 43 and 62.

43 A whole catena of texts and authors.could be marshalled to demonstrate the general view that the propers are related. See especially Part III of this paper. Throughout, reference will be made to authors who argue explicitly for their relation. The lectionaries of the western church emerge out of the profound view of the doctrinal unity of scripture. St. Augustine, for instance, speaks generally of the consonance of the divine lessons: “Apostolum audivimus, psalmum audivimus, evangetium audivimus, consonant omnes divinae lectiones” (Sermo 165 de Verb. Apost. tom. V, ed. Benedict, p. 796 as quoted in W. Paimer’s Origines Uturgicae (London, 1845), p. 47). It is especially characteristic of the homilectical and devotional tradition within Anglicanism to work out the connection between the collect, epistle, and gospel within the framework of the doctrine of sanctification (cf. Nicholls, Sparrow, Cosin, Wheatly, Stanhope, Mant, Blunt, Dunlop, etc.).

The whole tradition reveals a mighty, valiant cloud of witnesses. G.W.O. Addleshaw captures nicely something of the spirit of that tradition when he observes that the sense of “the place of the liturgy in the life of the soul” for the seventeenth century Anglican divines meant “great emphasis on instructing the laity in its [the Liturgy’s principles and meaning.” He finds an attractive illustration of this point in George Herbert, who “was in the habit of explaining the structure of the Prayer Book to the people of Bemerton; he dealt with the meaning of the prayers, the connection between the collect, epistle, and gospel for the day, and showed the reason for all that was done in the service.” G.W.O. Addleshaw, The High Church Tradition: A Study In the Liturgical Thought of the Seventeenth Century (London, 1941), p. 60

44 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 5. The development of the eucharistic lectionary from the early Middle Ages onwards shows rather the considered and systematic use of scripture. See Part III. Moreover, the ordered reading of scripture forms the basis of the common prayer tradition. At the centre of that ordered reading is the eucharistic lectionary, received from the tradition and improved upon by the English Reformers. By ‘erosion’ the Canadian revisers seem to mean that less scripture is read than what is provided for in the new lectionary at the eucharist. This makes quantity the primary consideration. But see notes 66 and 67. It also overlooks the fundamental character of the eucharistic lectionary, which does not seek to present a quantitative, continuous reading of scripture, but sets forth the essential moments of saving doctrine in an ordered sequence. That substantial or doctrinal pattern forms the basis of the quantitative approach taken up in the daily offices. See Part III, pp. 38-46.

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45 The Lectionary, 1980, p. 5. Also see Appendix.

46 BAS, p. 262. Also see Appendix. This statement both misrepresents and distorts the character of the older eucharistic lectionary.

47 BAS, p. 262. Also see Appendix.

48 BAS, p. 262. Again, this is a polemical remark (however muted in tone from the 1980 Lectionary it may be) which aims at discrediting the whole western development by mere assertion and not by reasoned argument based on actual evidence. The concern of the English Reformers, in particular, was to provide an ordered system for the reading of scripture in the daily and regular life of the church for the express purpose of instruction and edification. See Introduction, pp. 2-3, and Part III.

49 BAS, p. 262. This overlooks two important points. First, it overlooks the pastoral life of the Anglican Church which comprehends two different kinds of tendencies of eucharistic piety: the one preferring less frequent, monthly, or quarterly communion; the other frequent or weekly communion. One ought not to be disparaged in favour of the other. Second, it ignores that even when there was not Sunday communion, the Sunday worship often included mattins, litany, and ante-communion at which, therefore, the eucharistic propers would have been read. See Peter Waido, A Commentary, Practical and Explanatory on the Liturgy of the Church of England as used on Sundays (London, 1772). Evensong then followed later in the day. Morever, the offices of Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer are to be understood not in their isolation, but in their relation to the Holy Communion. Martin Thornton argues their immediate connection as an important part of the comprehensive and systematic character of the Book of Common Prayer, though in my view he fails to appreciate how the radical changes to the office lectionary which he proposes would undermine “the foundations, the overall plan, the classic proportions” of the Prayer Book, the basic structure of which he wishes to retain: “for goodness’ sake let us leave the basic structure alone.” Martin Thornton, English Spirituality (London, 1963), pp. 257-281, but especially pp. 263 and 271. In general, his difficulty in appreciating the reformed character of the Prayer Book results in the failure to grasp how essential the ordered reading of the whole of scripture is for the common prayer tradition. His proposals would represent the incursion of the breviary tradition into the Prayer Book pattern. The present lectionary revisions also result in a reversion to a kind of breviary for the offices, with their many options and variables (see Introduction, pp. 29-30; Part 1, pp. 31-32; and Part III, pp. 40-41). The interdependence of the services through the liturgical year, by the ordered reading of scripture, and in the pattern of public worship is well comprehended and nicely presented by Colin Dunlop in his extremely useful and fine little book, Anglican Public Worship (London, 1953), especially Chapter VI, “The Book of Common Prayer”.

50 See note 49.

51 BAS, p. 262. See Part I, p. 31; Part II, p. 34; and note 49.

52 See Part II, pp. 34-37, and notes 62, 64, and 67.

53 See Part III, pp. 46-50, and Appendix.

Part II

54 OLM, caput I.I.1.

55 OLM, I.II.3.

56 OLM, I.II.3.

57 OLM, I.II.3.

58 OLM, I.II.3.

59 OLM, I.II.3 et Tempus ‘per annum’, II.V.15.I.

60 OLM, I.II.3.

61 OLM, I.II.3.

62 The Prayer Book design of the Epiphany season is to manifest the glory and set forth the divinity of Christ through an ordered

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sequence, comprising first, divine wisdom, and second, divine power (cf. the collect for the First Sunday after Epiphany, Cdn. BCP, 1962, p. 123). The manifestation of divine wisdom — Christ teaching in the Temple of Jerusalem (Epiphany I) — precedes the manifestations of divine power: Christ turning water into wine at the Wedding of Cana (Epiphany II); Christ healing the leper (Epiphany III); Christ stilling the sea-storm by his words (Epiphany IV); Christ gathering in the wheat and tares of the world for judgement (Epiphany V); and Christ in the glory of his second coming (Epiphany VI). These last two manifestations are conveniently designed to perform double duty at the end of the Trinity season in anticipation of the season of Advent (see note 40). The epistles exhort us to an imitation and a manifestation of Christ in our lives and, in the light of his divine majesty, to steadfastness and hope in him throughout the tribulations of the world.

The pre-Lenten Sundays SeptuagesimaSexagesima, and Quinquagesima prepare us for the journey and discipline of Lent by the inculcation of the cardinal virtues of temperance, justice, prudence, and fortitude transformed by the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity — primarily by charity, the chief of these. The Trinity season presents a system of practical Christianity through the application of saving doctrine unto individuals in all circumstances of life by way of Christ’s example, and by means of God’s revelation in Christ. (See Part III, p. 37). Thomas Bisse points out that the Sundays after Trinity may be considered as looking either backwards to Pentecost and Trinity Sunday in the light of which Christian practical life is undertaken, or forwards to the time of the coming of our Lord in Advent (see Part III, pp. 38-40 and note 179). The logic and character of Epiphany season, the season of pre-Lent, and Trinity season disappears in the face of Tempus ‘per annum’. “Incipit feria secunda quae sequitur dominicam post diem 6 ianuarii occurrentem, et protrahitur usque ad feriam tertiam ante Quadragesimam inclusive; iterum incipit feria secunda post Dominicam Pentecostes et explicit ante I Vesperas dominicae primae Adventus” (OLM, caput II.V.15.1). For while the second Sunday in ordinary time retains its traditional relation to Epiphany with the gospel story of the Wedding at Cana, the third Sunday actually begins the course of semi-continuous reading of the three synoptic gospels: “A dominica III incipit lectio semi-continua trium Evangeliorum synopticorum; haec lectio ita ordinatur ut praebent doctrinam unicuique Evangelio propriam dum evolvitur vita et praedicatio Domini” (OLM, II.V.15.1). OLM intends a harmony between the sense of each gospel and the evolution of the liturgical year, but the principle lectio semi-continua vitiates the realization of this in anything other than a vague and general sense. It has nothing of the doctrinal clarity of the Prayer Book lections.

63 OLM, II.V.15.1.

64

Lectiones Veteris Testamenti in relatione cum singulis pericopis evangelicis selectae sunt, ad vitandam nimiam diversitatem inter lectiones singularum Missarum ac praesertim ad manifestandam unitatem utriusque Testamenti. Relatio autem inter lectiones eiusdem Missae ostenditur per accuratam selectionem titulorum qui singulis lectionibus praeponuntur. (OLM, caput II.V.2.16).

OLM thus seeks to avoid too great a diversity between the readings and seeks to show the unity of both Testaments. It argues that the relation between the readings appears through the accurate selection of the titles which have been set forth for each of the readings. But where and what are these titles? The claims made in the Praenotanda of OLM are not supported by the OLM-based lectionaries. Do these titles, to which the forward refers, emerge out of the texts themselves or are they imposed upon the texts? The Sundays in Ordinary Time, for instance, sometimes reveal a kind of semi-continuous programme through the Old Testament: readings from Genesis are followed by readings from Exodus in year A, from the ninth Sunday through to the twenty-sixth Sunday; in year B, readings from I Samuel are followed by readings from II Samuel and I Kings, from the ninth Sunday through to the twenty-third Sunday: in year C, readings from I Kings are followed by readings from II Kings, from the ninth Sunday through to the eighteenth Sunday, when selections from Jeremiah are then read for the next three Sundays, followed by Ezekiel for the next two Sundays. Insofar as the gospels

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and the epistles are also semi-continuous, it is difficult to see how the relation between the readings claimed for by OLM can be satisfactorily realized.

65 BAS, pp. 359-365, Genesis 12: 1-9; 22: 1-18; 25: 19-34; 28: 10-17; 32: 22-32.

66 While there are occasional expurgations of biblical texts in the Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary as, for example, the omission of four verses from the midst of I Corinthians 10, appointed as the epistle for the Ninth Sunday after Trinity, these are modest and few in number, unfortunate as they nonetheless may be. OLM, however, takes far greater liberties with biblical texts. Not only does this result in a kind of reconstruction of the text, but it also involves a considerable amount of jumping around within a given text. Insofar as the BAS does not print out the readings — even though the overall lectionary material runs to some two hundred pages — this feature makes great difficulties for the public reading from the Bible. Consequently, the BAS requires supplementation by lectionary leaflets which must be circulated for use on Sundays, or by the provision of an additional book — a pew lectionary with the texts printed out in full. These have the effect of obscuring what has been left out. A few random examples from the new lectionary illustrate the difficulty and the degree of this jumping about within a given text.

In year A, on the First Sunday of Lent, the Old Testament lesson from Genesis begins at chapter 2, verse 4b, goes to verse 9, omits verses 10-14, recommences at verse 15 continuing through verse 17, omits verses 18-24 and concludes with verses 25 through to chapter 3, verse 7. The second lesson at the Easter Vigil service is Genesis 7:1-5, 11-18; 8: 6-18; 9: 8-13. The seventh lesson at the Easter Vigil service is Baruch 3: 9-15 and verse 32 through to 4: 4. The second reading in year A on the seventh Sunday after Easter is I Peter 4:12-14; 5: 6.11; in year B, Acts 1: 15-17, 21-26; and in year C, Revelation 22:12-14, 16-17, and verse 20. The gospel appointed in year B for the feast of Pentecost is John 15:26-27 and 16:4b-15. In year C, the Old Testament lesson for the Third Sunday after Epiphany begins with chapter 8 of the book of Nehemiah, verses 1-4a, verses 5-6, and verses 9-10. In year B, on the nineteenth Sunday in Ordinary Time (Proper 19), the Old Testament lesson begins with verse 1 of the 18th chapter of the second book of Samuel, omits verses 2-4, reads verse 5, omits verses 6-8, and concludes with verses 9-15. The year B gospel for the twenty-second Sunday in Ordinary Time (Proper 22) consists of Mark 7:1-8,14-15, and 21-23. The epistle appointed for year B for the twenty-fourth Sunday in Ordinary Time (Proper 24) is the second chapter of the letter of James, verses 1-5, 8-10, and verses 14-17; the Old Testament lesson in year C (Proper 24) is Hosea 4:1-3, 5:15-6:6. The second reading for the feast of St. Stephen begins with chapter 6 of the book of Acts, verses 8 to 7:2a, and then leaps to verse 51c through to verse 60. What exactly verse 51c refers to is puzzling. Beyond the actual omissions of verses, the choice for the beginning and/or ending of pericopes in some instances is also curious. The commentators on the new common lectionary understand the influence of modern biblical criticism in the selection and omission of verses and the rationale for the beginning and ending of pericopes but, on occasion, they are moved to question its application. For example, the first lesson for the third Sunday after Easter is not an Old Testament lesson but a passage from the third chapter of Acts, which ends abruptly in the middle of a sentence in verse nineteen. This moves the commentator to observe, “if one wishes to abbreviate the text at all, a more appropriate cutoff point would be either at the end of verse 16 or at the end of verse 21. Preferably, the text should include verses 12-26” (F.B. Cruddock, J.H. Hayes, C.R. Holladay, G.M. Tucker, Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter (Nashville, 1984), p. 177).

The desire for short pericopes, the concern for expediency, the dominance of biblical criticism with respect to the history, construction, order, and character of scriptural texts, and concessions to contemporary psychological views about sin and judgement and the existential worth of the individual may combine to account for this feature of OLM and OLM-based lectionaries. OLM itself explains the avoidance of the certain passages under the rubric of pastoral reasons: “Ex ratione pastorali vitantur in lectionibus diebus dominicis et Sollemnitatibus textus biblici qui revera difficiliores sunt, sive obiective eo quod altiora problemata

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litteraria, critica aut exegetica movent, sive etiam, quadamtenus saltem, eo quod a fidelibus difficilius intellegi possunt.” OLM, I.VI.7c.

67 Ordinarys Time comprises the Sundays after Epiphany and before Lent, and the Sundays after Pentecost and before Advent. In year A, the year of Matthew, the programme of semi-continuous reading begins with Matthew 4: 12-23 and proceeds by way of selected short pericopes from most, but not all of the chapters of Matthew’s gospel, concluding with Matthew 25: 31-46. Overall in the three-year cycle for all the Sundays of the year, excluding saints’ days, and according to the programme of both semi-continuous and thematic reading, three entire chapters of St. Matthew’s gospel are not read at all — chapters 8, 12, and 19. The brevity of the pericopes, for the most part, means considerable omissions from each chapter.

In year B, the year of Mark, the programme of semi-continuous reading begins with Mark 1: 14.20 and proceeds similarly by way of selected pericopes as far as Mark 13: 24.32. Overall, in the course of the three-year cycle, with the exception of the long reading option of the Marcan Passion (Mark 14, 15) on Palm Sunday in year B, only chapter 1 of Mark’s gospel is read in its entirety. As with Matthew’s gospel, the shortened pericopes result in considerable omissions.

In year C, the year of Luke, the programme of semi-continuous reading begins with Luke 4:14-21 and proceeds In like fashion as Matthew and Mark as far as Luke 21: 5-19. As with the other gospels, sizeable omissions occur in almost every chapter.

Selected passages from John 6 make an appearance in the midst of year B. This marks the only semi-continuous course of John in ordinary time. The more extensive use of John in the seasons of Advent, Lent, and Eastertide nonetheless results in considerable omissions over the three-year cycle, both by way of shortened pericopes and by means of the exclusion of chapters; for instance, chapters 5, 7 and 8 (though John 7: 37.39 appears as a Pentecost option in year A — BAS, p. 345.)

The simple exclusion of whole chapters and the sizeable omission of verses by means of abbreviated pericopes considerably vitiates the claim that a greater quantity of scripture is being presented. No doubt over three years with three lessons more scripture is offered at the eucharist than what the one-year doctrinally structured Prayer Book eucharistic lectionary presents, but in general the revisers have not taken full advantage of a three-year cycle, especially for the reading of the Old Testament and the gospel. The result is a less coherent and less comprehensive presentation of saving doctrine. The more quantitatively may be less substantially.

68 BAS, pp. 370-376.

69 See Raymond Brown’s summary of scholarly opinions on this matter in his book The Gospel According to John, I-XII, Anchor Bible series (New York, 1966), Vol. 1, lntroduction. p. xxvi and p. 235.

70 cf. Brown, pp. 236ff., and:

In anno B inseruntur, post dominicam XVI, quinque lectiones ex capitulo 6 loannis (“serrno de pane vitae”); haec insertio fit modo connaturali, quia multiplicatio panum ex Evangelio loannis locum sumit eiusdem narrationis in Marco. ( OLM II.V.2.16)

See also Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, After Pentecost, p. 109.

71 Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, After Pentecost, p. 109.

72 BAS, p. 339. This obtains as well for the seventh Sunday after Easter: year A, John 17: 1-11; year B, John 17: 16-19; year C, John 17: 20-26. (BAS, p. 344)

73 BAS, p. 298 and p. 300.

74 BAS, pp. 301-3W.

75 Cdn. BCP, 1962, pp. xxvi-xxvii, and pp. 150-181. While many may applaud the provision of an Easter Vigil service in the proposed book, it is instructive to note that, for the most part, the Old Testament prophecies read at the Vigil, especially those appointed in the older missals, are comprehended in the Sunday office and/or daily office readings throughout

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pre-Lent, Lent, and Eastertide in the Prayer Book. 1 am grateful to the Rev. Prof. W.J. Hankey for these observations; Easter Retreat 1985, “Risen with Christ”, held at St. Augustine’s Monastery, Antigonish County, Nova Scotia, April 19-21, l985.

76 Geoffrey G. Willis, “The Historical Background of the English Lectionary of 1955” in The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. IX, 1958, p. 83.

77 See note 66.

78 See notes 41 and 90.

79 BAS, p. 188 + p. 233.

80 The First and Second Prayer Books of King Edward VI, Everyman’s Library (London, 1968), pp. 32-211.

81 Cdn. BCP, 1962, pp. L-Liv.

82 1 am indebted to the Rev. Roger Beckwith for kindly providing me with this information.

83 Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, p. 24.

84> Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, p. 24.

85 Preaching the New Common Lectionionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, pp. 34, 46, and 56.

86 Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, p. 56.

87 Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, p. 34.

88 Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, p. 46.

89 Preaching the New Common Lectionary, Year B, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, p. 60.

90 The assimilation of both scripture and even Christ himself to the Church, comparable to the most extreme view of the authority of the Roman magisterium, may be seen in A.H. Couratin’s article “Liturgy” inHistorical Theology, The Pelican Guide to Modern Theology, Vol. 2 (England: Penguin Books, 1969), pp. 131-140. Similarly, this position appears in the work of Karl Rahner where it has been aptly described as “a church-centred Marxism”, by J.A. Doull, “Augustinian Trinitarianism and Existential Theology” in Dionysius III, 1979, pp. 111-112, note 1. Significantly, such an assimilation is accomplished by a combination of biblical criticism and contemporary liturgical reform. The Introduction to the BAS reveals that this assumption underlies their enterprise as well.'(BAS, pp. 9-10)

91 Adddleshaw, The High Church Tradition, pp. 20-69 and pp. 84-96.

Part III

92 Hooker, Works, I, p. 126.

93 Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy, trans. John Ciardi (New York, 1961), p. 388.

94 Hooker, Works, III, p. 485.

95

And being itself the Instrument which God hath purposely framed, thereby to work the knowledge of salvation in the hearts of men, what cause is there wherefore it should not of itself be acknowledged a most apt and a likely mean to leave an Apprehension of things divine in our understanding, and in the mind an Assent thereunto? (Hooker, Works, 11, p. 85.)

96 The First Book of Homilies, 1562 (London: SPCK, 1952), p. 1.

97 The First Book of Homilies, p. 1.

98 The First Book of Homilies, p. 3.

99 The First Book of Homilies, p. 3.

100

God, who knoweth and discloseth best the rich treasures of his own wisdom, hath by delivering his word made choice of the Scriptures as the most effectual means whereby those treasures might be imparted unto the world, it followeth that to man’s understanding the Scripture must needs be even of itself intended as a full and perfect discovery, sufficient to imprint in us the lively character of all things necessarily required for the attainment of eternal life. (Hooker, Works, 11, p. 85.)

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101 The First Book of Homilies, p. 3.

102 The First Book of Homilles, p. 4.

103 The First Book of Homilies, p. 4.

104 cf. Geoffrey Willis, “The Historical Background”, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, pp. 73-86; K.D. MacKenzie, “Collects, Epistles and Gospels” In Liturgy and Worship, ed. W.K. Lowther Clarke (London, 1932), pp. 378-382; ahd C.W. Dugmore, The Influence of the Synagogue upon the Divine Office (London, 1944), especially p. 13 and p. 42.

105 cf. Paul F. Bradshaw, Daily Prayer In the Early Church. (London: Alcuin Club, SPCK 1981), pp. 1-71.

106 F. Procter and W.H. Frere, A New History of the Book of Common Prayer (New York, 1901), pp. 312-313.

107 The Prayer Book Dictionary, ed. G. Harford, M. Stevenson and J.W. Tyrer (The Waverley Book Co., Ltd., 1912), “The Lectionary”, pp. 430ff.

108 W.K. Lowther Clarke, “The Lectionary” in Liturgy and Worship, ed. W.K. Lowther Clarke (London, 1932), p. 296.

109 Clarke, “The Lectionary”, Liturgy and Worship, p. 296; Procter and Frere, p. 320.

110 The Prayer Book Dictionary, “The Lectionary”, p. 430; Clarke, p. 296.

111 Procter and Frere, p. 312 and p. 320; The Prayer Book Dictionary, “The Lectionary”, p. 431.

112 The Prayer Book Dictionary, “The Lectionary”, p. 431.

113 Procter and Frere, p. 320; Willis, p. 73.

114 The Prayer Book Dictionary, “The Lectionary”, p. 431.

115 Hubert Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent, trans. Dom Ernest Graf, OSB (Edinburgh, 1961), Vol. 11, p. 69.

116 Cdn. BCP, 1962, Preface, p. 715.

117 Cdn. BCP, 1962, Preface, P. 715.

118 Cdn. BCP, 1962, “The Articles of Religion”, art. VI, p. 700.

119 Willis, p. 73.

120 Willis, p. 73.

121 Willis, p. 75.

122 Anthony Sparrow, A Rationale upon the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England (London, 1672), p. 40.

123 Willis, p. 75.

124 Willis, p. 74; Clarke, p. 297.

125 Clarke, P. 297.

126 Clarke, p. 298.

127 See.pp. 46-50.

128 The Prayer Book Dictionary, “The Lectionary”, p. 432.

129 The Prayer Book Dictionary, “The Lectionary”, p. 432.

130 W.J. Armitage, The Story of the Canadian Revision of the Prayer Book (Toronto, 1922), pp. 1-6. The copy which I possess is that given by Armitage to the Venerable Frederick Williams Vroom, “in grateful remembrance of valuable help, especially In regard to ‘The Appendix’.”

131 Armitage, The Story of the Canadian Revision, p. 7.

132 Armitage, p. 11.

133 Armitage, p. 7.

134 Armitage, pp. 31-43.

135 Armitage, pp. 61-63. The maritime contingent Included Dean Crawford of Halifax, Canon Simpson of Charlottetown, and the Hon. Mr. Justice Fitzgerald of Charlottetown, who was said to have held strong views in favour of increasing the appointment of lections from the Old Testament prophetical writings.

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136 Armitage, p. 61.

137 Armitage, p. 149.

138 Armitage, p. 149.

139 Armitage, p. 149.

140 Armitage, p. 120, and The General Synod of the Church of England in the Dominion of Canada, Journal of Proceedings, 7th Session, 1915 (Toronto, 1916), p. 132 and p. 354.

141 Clarke, p. 298.

142 General Synod Journal, 8th Session, 1918, pp. 417-418.

143 Armitage, pp. 150-151.

144 Armitage, p. 151.

145 Armitage, p. 151.

146 Armitage, p. 152.

147 Armitage, p. 152.

148 Armitage, p. 152.

149 Armitage, p. 152.

150 Armitage, pp. 150-151.

151 Armitage, p. 153.

152 Armitage, p. 153.

153 Armitage, p. 153.

154 Armitage, p. 154.

155 Armitage, p. 154.

156 Armitage, p. 154.

157 Armitage, p. 154.

158 Armitage, p. 154.

159 The Church of England subsequently revised its 1955 lectionary in 1961; a revision which, naturally enough, owing to the completion of our revision in 1959 and its official sanction in 1962, we did not adopt. It marks the first time in Canada that we have had a different lectionary than what was In use in England.

160 Willis, p. 75.

161 Willis, p. 76.

162 Cdn. BCP, 1962, pp. xxxii-xivi

163 Cdn. BCP, 1962, pp. xxx-xxxviii.

164 Cdn. BCP, 1962, pp. xviii-xx.

165 “The Book of Common Prayer is the most Intelligible and practicable form of worship, that could by the wisdom and experience of almost two hundred years be devised. Besides its intrinsic clearness, more books have been written all along in the explanation as well as defence of it, than are known to have been upon any Liturgy in the world.” (Thomas Bisse, Decency and Order In Publick Worship Recommended In Three Discourses Preached In the Cathedral Church of Hereford (London, 1723), Sermon ill, p. 117.)

An eighteenth century Christian layman writes:

Of all the Forms of Prayer that have ever been composed for the Use of Christians, our admirable Liturgy has, from it’s first Appearance to this Day, deservedly held the first Rank; and been most highly esteemed and applauded by the best Judges, and wisest Members, not only of our own, but of many other Protestant Churches. For, whether it be considered barely as a Form of rational Devotion, or as a Treasure of sound Doctrine, and an Incentive to the Practice of every Christian Virtue; whether we attend to the Matter it contains, or to the Language in which it is expressed; it’s Excellency will appear in every Point of View distinctly, and It must be allowed, upon the Whole, to be a most useful, pious and masterly Composition.

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(Peter Waldo, A Commentary, Practical and Explanatory, p. ix.)

166 Thomas Comber, A Companion to the Temple and Closet: or a help to Publick and Private Devotion, In an Essay upon the daily offices of the Church (London, 1672), pp. 209-213.

167 Bisse goes on to observe: “The pretended want of inward Spirit or outward decency in it can arise only from the indevotion and misbehaviour of us the users, or rather abusers of it.” (Decency and Order, Sermon III, p. 117.)

168 Bisse, The Beauty of Holiness, Sermon IV, pp. 134-135; and Bishop John Cosin observes:

The Church hath not appointed these following gospels and epistles, but upon special relation to the time wherein they read. And it is admirable to see with what order and wisdom all things are disposed and brought in tempore suo, that they might be the more kindly for the putting us in mind of what we are about, or what we have to do. (Works, ed. J. Henry and J. Parker (Oxford, 1855), Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, Vol. V, “Notes and Collections on the Book of Common Prayer”, p. 69.

Addleshaw reports William Beveridge’s view of the overall unity and order of Prayer Book services as a whole, and observes in particular that the “daily services and the Eucharist too are related to each other through the lectionary and the collects, epistles, and gospels. The full meaning of the structure is not apparent until the Prayer Book is viewed over the whole length of the Church’s year” (Addleshaw, p. 85).

169 Quoted in Mant, The Book of Common Prayer, p. 93.

170 Sparrow, A Rationale, pp. 92-94.

171 Sparrow, p. 94.

172 Bisse, The Beauty of Holiness, p. 134.

173 Quoted in Mant, p. 93.

174 Cosin, V, p. 69.

175 Sparrow, pp. 182-183.

176 Cosin, V, pp. 69-70.

177 John Henry Blunt, The Annotated Book of Common Prayer (London, 1876), p. 116.

178 Bishop Overall, as quoted in Mant, p. 94.

179 Bisse, The Beauty of Holiness, p. 134. A twentieth century German Benedictine commentary also understands this season to have a similar double character or twofold division:

Sie gliedert sich aber deutlich in zwei Abschnitte. Dererste reicht bis zum 18. Sonntag nach Pfingsten und hält sich an das Ostergeheimnis; der zweite Abschnitt ist ziemlich stark eschatologisch, d.h. endzeitlich, gereichtet und schaut vorwrts, der Zukunft, der Wiederkunft Christi, entgegen. (Anselm Schott, OSB, Das Völistiindige Römische Messbuch (Frelburg, 1961), p. 594.

180 Sparrow, pp. 183-184.

181 Sparrow, p. 184.

182 Sparrow, p. 184.

183 Sparrow, p. 184.

184 Sparrow, p. 184. Sparrow goes on to speak not only of the antiquity of the eucharistic lectionary but also of its doctrinal appropriateness and coherence. The comprehensiveness of the church’s use of scripture is once again suggested by the inter-relation of the offices and the eucharist.

True it is, that in ancient Rituals, and particularly in S. Hieromes Comes (or Lectionarius) where we find this same order of Epistles and Gospels (see Pamelii Liturg. Eccles. Lat. T.2.) there are some other besides these which our Church useth, as for Wednesdays, Fridaies and other special times and Solemnities. But

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those for Sundaies and other Holy-daies, which are retained by our Church, are so well chosen for the fitness, variety and weightiness of the matter, and out of that Evangelist that delivers it most fully, that the chiefest passages of all the Evangelists are hereby made known and preached to us; and what we meet not with here is abundantly supplied by the daily second Lessons. And the like also may be said concerning the Epistles. (Sparrow, ‘P. 185).

Sparrow is very well acquainted with the historical apparatus about the development of the lectionary for the Sundays between Pentecost and Advent, particularly with respect to the order of the readings from St. Paul’s epistles and the accommodations made for Dominicae Vacantes, pp. 185-195. See Appendix.

185 Sparrow, p. 185.

186 Sparrow, p. 183.

187 The First Book of Homilies, p. 3; see p. 21.

188 Cdn. BCP, 1962, Preface, p. 715. Consequently, the 1962 Canadian Prayer Book, for instance, has made some changes to the eucharistic lectionary, but within the framework of the common prayer tradition. While they are mostly minor changes, concerning at which verse in a chapter the reading begins or ends, some few are more considerable, involving the appointment of new lessons, epistles, or gospels. A new lesson for the Circumcision, Isaiah 9:2, was appointed. An epistle, James 4:6, was appointed to replace Joel 2:12 as the lesson on Ash Wednesday; Joel 2: 12 appears as the lesson used at the Penitential Service provided for Ash Wednesday in the 1962 Canadian BCP. In two instances gospel readings from Matthew are replaced by their Marcan counterpart. This occurs on the Fourth Sunday in Epiphany — with the consequence of the omission of the Gergasene Exorcism and the Eighteenth Sunday after Trinity. On the Fifth Sunday in Lent the 1962 Canadian BCP appoints Matthew 20: 20, in place of John 8: 46; on the Sixth Sunday after Trinity, Luke 6: 27 replaces Matthew 5: 20. Galatians 5:16 is read as the epistle, in place of Galatians 3: 16, for the Thirteenth Sunday after Trinity, while Galatians 5: 25 is read instead of Galatians 5:16 for the Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity. The gospel for the Sunday Next Before Advent was changed from John 6: 5 to John 1: 35. It is interesting to note that such a change allows the propers of this Sunday to concur with the contemporary fashion for the observance of the Feast of Christ the King on this day, at the same time as preserving its more fundamental character of summing up the season of Trinity and inaugurating the season of Advent. None of these changes result in a lack of relation or loss of coherence between the epistle and the gospel. These changes may well be accounted for by the desire to make the connection more explicit within the doctrinal structure of the year.

189 Cdn. BCP, 1962, p. viii.

190 Hooker, Works, 1, p. 126; and see p. 20. Thomas Bisse advises,

What we thus ignorantly practice, let us know better why we practice. Let us learn the reason, sense and propriety of all things pertaining to this our daily offering. And if we know it, we must esteem it; and if we esteem it, we shall offer it up with affection; which will necessarily create devotion in the soul and decency in the body, the proper and full sacrifice of the whole man. (Bisse, Decency and Order, Sermon III, p. 118.) 19, Sparrow, p. 95.

Notes to the Appendix

1 K.D. MacKenzie, “Collects, Epistles and Gospels” in Liturgy and Worship, ed. W.K. Lowther Clarke (London, 1932), pp. 381-409.

2 Peter G. Cobb, “The Liturgy of the Word in the Early Church” in The Study of the Liturgy, ed. Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold (Oxford, 1978), p. 186.

3 J.A. Lamb, “The Place of the Bible in the Liturgy” in The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1, ed. P.R. Ackroyd and C.F. Evans (Cambridge, 1970), pp. 563-586.

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Also, S.J.P. van Dijk, “The Bible in Liturgical Use” in The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 2, ed. G.W.J. Lampe (Cambridge, 1969), pp. 220-251; and Joseph A. Jungmann, S.J., The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Developments, Vol. 1 (New York, 1951), pp. 391-421.

4 Cobb, “The Liturgy”, The Study of the Liturgy, p. 186.

5 Lamb, “The Place of the Bible”, The Cambridge History, pp. 571-573.

6 Lamb, “The Place of the Bible”, The Cambridge History, pp. 571-573.

7 Lamb, pp. 571-573; van Dijk, “The Bible”, The Cambridge History, pp. 225-227; Jungmann, The Mass, p. 398.

8 Lamb, pp. 571-573.

9 Lamb, p. 573; van Dijk, p. 226; Jungmann, p. 402.

10 van Dijk, p. 226.

11 Jungmann, p. 397, n. 20.

12 See Part III, pp. 47-49; Part I, notes 40, 42, 43; Part II, n. 62.

13 Lamb, p. 572; van Dijk, p. 226.

14 Jungmann, p. 402.

15 Jungmann, p. 402.

16 Jungmann, p. 403.

17 Jungmann, p. 397, n. 20.

18 van Dijk, p. 226, n. 3 and 2.

19 Anselm Schott, OSB, Das Vollständige Römische Messbuch (Freiburg, 1961), P. xxiv.

20 Schott, p. xxv.

21 Schott, p. 146.

22 A. Vogel, “Der Einfluss von Heiligenfesten auf die Perikopenwahl an den Sonntagen nach Pfingsten” In Zeitschrift für Katholische Theologie, LXIX, 1947, pp. 100-118.

23 MacKenzie, “Collects”, Liturgy.and Worship, pp. 390-402.

24 Abbot Guéranger, OSB, and Br. L.F., OSB, The Liturgical Year, 1879, trans. Dom Laurence Shepherd, OSB, (Marion House, Powers Lake, North Dakota, 1983), Vol. XI, “Time after Pentecost, Book II”, p. 2.

25 Guéranger, p. 3.

26 Schott, p. 595.

27 Schott, p. 595.

28 Guéranger, p. 3.

29 John Henry Blunt, The Annotated Book of Common Prayer (London, 1876), pp. 68-144.

30 F. Procter and W.H. Frere, A New History of the Book of Common Prayer (New York, 1901), p. 550.

31 Lamb, pp. 571-573; van Dijk, pp. 225-227; Jungmann, pp. 391-421.

32 MacKenzie, pp. 381-409.

33 Blunt, The Annotated, p. 116.

34 Procter and Frere, A New History , p. 550.

35 Guéranger, P. 116.

36 MacKenzie, p. 383 and p. 398.

37 MacKenzie, p. 398.

38 Guéranger, p. 116.

39 MacKenzie, p. 398.

40 Guéranger, p. 116.

41 Guéranger, p. 116, and MacKenzie, p. 398.

42 Guéranger, Vol. X, p. 91 ff., and MacKenzie, p. 398.

43 Guéranger, Vol. X, p. 93.

44 Guéranger, Vol. X, p. 93.

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REPLY TO FR. CURRY’S PAPER

Peter W. Harris

Thank you very much, Father Curry.

Fr. Curry has given us a very thorough treatment of this subject, and I am in substantial agreement with him in the points which he has made. I would like to draw attention to what I see as the main points in Fr. Curry’s presentation.

In his introduction, he told us that the way Scripture is read is expressive of the Church’s teaching or doctrine about Scripture. How one reads the Scriptures suggests what one thinks about the church, the Christian life, etc. Therefore, it is not a matter of Indifference how the Scriptures are read.

In Part I, Fr. Curry outlined the arguments that are advanced in favour of the new lectionary, by critically examining the 1980 Canadian orange booklet and the Preface to the Lectionary in the 1983 draft of the Book of Alternate Services. They urge it

  • (a) for ecumenical reasons
  • (b) the supposed limitations of the Prayer Book lectionary.

Father Curry has dealt with and exposed these arguments very well and entertainingly. Both of these arguments assume the loss of common prayer. (the new lectionary, based on Ordo Lectio Missae does not emerge out of a common prayer tradition).

Part II of Fr. Curry’s paper drew our attention to the essential principles underlying the new lectionary. This section of Fr. Curry’s paper, though brief, was very important. The principles of modern Biblical criticism provide the logic for changing the lectionary. Modern Biblical criticism becomes the basis for how one reads Scripture. What results is a divorce between Scripture and Doctrine — a weakening of the logic of the Church Year — an unclear relationship of the readings to one another and to the Church Year.

The absence of a Sunday Office Lectionary in the new lectionary would seem to be a significant weakness.

Perhaps Fr. Curry or others here at this conference could elaborate on how the principles of modern Biblical criticism underlie the new lectionary, and explain more fully what the dangers are.

The Third Part of Fr. Curry’s paper gave us a very thorough treatment of the lectionary as we now have it in the Book of Common Prayer — an analysis of the underlying principles on which it is based, and a detailed presentation of the history of how it developed to the present form that we have in our Canadian Book of Common prayer.

Fr. Curry has shown that the Prayer Book lectionary functions within the Prayer Book’s systematic and coherent program of sanctification, which is firmly built upon the principle of justification. Through Scripture, we learn that our justification is not in us but in Christ.

I want to draw attention to Fr. Curry’s point about Scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation. The lectionary is the means by which the purpose of scripture as a doctrinal instrument of salvation may be realized within the Prayer Book program of sanctification. The lectionary orders the reading of scripture according to the pattern of doctrine.

Fr. Curry has given us a wealth of detailed historical information about the development of the Prayer Book lectionary. No doubt many of us will wish to re-read and study the details of this section of his paper, when it appears in print.

Fr. Curry’s thesis is as follows. He has persuasively made the point that for the Common Prayer tradition, the Daily Office Lectionary, Sunday Office Lectionary, and Eucharistic Lectionary form a comprehensive whole with each part dependent on and informing the other. The doctrinal foundation of the Lectionary appears most explicitly in the Eucharistic Lectionary. The Eucharistic Lectionary is a thing of remarkable antiquity, rooted in the Patristic period. Indeed, it is an integral part of the whole western liturgical tradition. Are we to cast it aside lightly, in the interests of the supposed ecumenicity of this new lectionary?

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The abundance of traditional commentaries on the lectionary by classical Anglican writers shows that they saw an integral relation between the Epistles and Gospels of the Eucharistic Lectionary, manifesting a logical and clear doctrinal pattern of salvation. Fr. Curry has provided us with a number of specific examples and quotations from classical Anglican writers, to make this abundantly clear.

To sum up what has been said, in one or two sentences: Doctrine is the informing principle of the use of scripture in the Daily Office Lectionary, the Sunday Office Lectionary, and the Eucharistic Lectionary. There is a rationale for all three; they are integrally related to each other, and all are informed by the logic of the Christian Year.

Organizing the lectionary around the ecclesiastical year strengthens this unity. But even before this was done, the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century authors understood the essential relationship between the eucharistic lectionary and the Sunday Office Lectionary, and also they understood the Epistles and Gospels as being integrally related to one another. The claim that the Epistles and Gospels do not hold together or relate to one another is very wrong.

One question for discussion is: What should our attitude be, practically, to the new lectionary? Some parishes which are very traditional “Prayer Book” parishes in every other way, are making extensive use of the new lectionary. What should be our attitude to this? I will be interested to hear what is said in our discussion here this morning.

In conclusion, let me once again thank Fr. Curry on behalf of all of us. His paper today has given us much food for thought, and I trust it will now form the basis of some lively discussion and questions.

Christmas 2014

A Supplementary Message for the New Year

“Mary lets go of safety and reputation because of the compelling call of God” (Rowan Williams)

As we dispose of our old calendars and begin counting the days anew, let us bear in heart and mind our common calling, which is beautifully worded by Rowan Williams, a former Archbishop of Canterbury. Let us release our white-knuckled grasp onto the fleeting things of the world which slip between our fingers like sand, and let us instead vulnerably open our hands and our hearts to the wide-open risk of faith:

“She [Mary] is summoned by God to a role that could only … have marked her as more intensely a failure and an outcast. … It is her acceptance of risk, reproach and scandal that already points to her son, whose path will be the same road of rejection … Her self-forgetfulness in accepting God’s call is the foreshadowing of the cross. She loves in advance the love that Jesus will exhibit in life and death; in the cross, Jesus demonstrates that he loves the love his mother exhibited in accepting the shame and scandal of his birth. He is not ashamed to be known as her son, and in his affirmation of her he affirms what is the nature of the faith we are all called to.”

Rowan Williams, Ponder These Things: Praying with Icons of the Virgin (Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2002)


A General Christmas Message

“But (Jesus) made himself of no reputation” (Philippians 2. 7)

Born homeless, poor, and into an uncertain and questionable family situation, the Christ Child is a Light breaking through hard bitter darkness. Time and again, God breaks the rules to prove that

Nativity of our Lord

Nativity, 17th century Italian School by a pupil of Luca Cambiaso (1527-1585)

He and His Love cannot be contained and controlled by any merits of prosperous good living – and in so doing, God in Christ fulfils the Law of Love to which the ancient laws and prophets intend to point us. Laws and rules of conduct are easily misused and abused, as we see clearly in Jesus’ many interactions with the religious elites, justice officials, and common folk of His day – and as we see all around us in our own day as well. We see and sometimes even experience first-hand the abuse of police enforcement, the abuse of the civil and criminal law courts of our lands, the abuse of authority invested in organizational leadership and, yes, this also includes our church structures and hierarchies (and perhaps especially so). Laws and rules too easily become twisted tools that oppose Love’s rule rather than the servants of Love they should be. As the American priest Matthew Fox puts it: “The Biblical sign of salvation is not control (whether self-control, control of others, or being controlled) – it is celebration.” How do we celebrate Love born into our midst?

In this season we rejoice at Good News with the unclean and bleakly blemished shepherds and pagan wise men. We celebrate God who is Love, for in God we discover the genuine salvation – the real healing – for which our hearts ache and our souls truly long. We do not, and cannot, find salvation apart from this heavenly gift of Light which breaks through us and which breaks open our illusory world of darkness in which we dwell in pain and ignorance. Birthing can be excruciatingly painful, yet the resulting New Life is always worth it. In our jubilation we find ourselves not simply alongside the dirty blue-collar nobodies (such as the shepherds) and ignorant foreigners (such as the wise men judged unwise), but we are counted among their number as well. That’s right: we not only stand alongside “the others,” but we are intermingled with them – in fact, we should speak of “us,” not “them” – and this is important. We are “of no reputation,” and those who stand with Christ in His abject poverty can never be good enough for this world and its soul-destroying systems of tyranny and oppression. Woe to you if you are thought of as righteous and good in this world (see St. Luke 6. 26)!

Jesus did not lead a moral life by the standards of the religion that was His own. Fearing the breaking through of Love and its radical freedom, and preferring to hold onto the false reins of crumbling control in a senseless effort to stop this birth of a new kingdom, many decided Jesus to be reprehensible and worthy of despising. This remains true today. Jesus would never be thought good enough to be a religious leader – the Author of Life was not even thought good enough by His own creation to be alive! Jesus Christ is a Light unseen by human eyes that cannot see beyond human noses, but when you do encounter Love within you and without you the scales of your earthy eyes begin to dissolve and you can never see the world – and your very life – the same again. So that you, Lord Jesus, may indeed be All in All, we thank you for being a nobody for everybody. Even me, even me.

Andrew Nussey, Webmaster
Christmas Eve 2014

The Doctrine of the Prayer Book in the Pastoral Ministry

The Doctrine of the Prayer Book
in the Pastoral Ministry

by Ralph Ogden


First, it might be as well to define four terms that I shall have to use: they relate to the two major controversies which have always tended to recur in the Church, and which appear to show up, here and there, in comparing the old and the new Prayer Books.

One is the debate on the nature of Man between Pelagius and Augustine of Hippo—or, more basically, between Pelagius and Paul (see Romans 7:18/end.) In terms of modern psychology, Augustine (died 430 A.D.) contended that the determining factor in morals and ethics is always hereditary, whereby the inevitable universal bias, from birth, is towards wrong-doing. Pelagius, his British contemporary, rejected the idea of an in-born bias, holding that the dominant factors in character and behaviour were always and solely, example, teaching and environment.

Second, is the debate on the Nature of God between Arius and Athanasius — or, more basically, between Arius and John (see John 10:30-38). Arius (320 A D.) contended that Jesus, though the highest and best of created beings, was “made”. Athanasius replied that the unity between Father and Son is that of coeval existence and shared Life. He is “begotten, not made.”

I say this by way of foreword, because of the themes you gave me, from which I might choose. One of these was “The Prayer Book and Doctrine”; the other. “The Prayer Book and Pastoral Ministry.” Both are good and fruitful themes, even taken in isolation; but I propose to consider them (as indeed they are) simply as two sides of the same coin. And by that I mean that all Christian Ministry, whether it be Pastoral or Liturgical, is only true in so for as it teaches or displays in action, a true Christian Doctrine. That seems obvious enough — yet it is equally obvious, when one looks at Church history in all ages, that there is a strong urge for us to split the coin and use only our own favoured side — and in so doing (albeit all unconsciously) to stultify both sides, that is, both the Pastoral and the Doctrinal.

It is in fact the lesson of all Church History (human nature being what it is) that an over-emphasis on Doctrine as such, with corresponding indifference to practical pastoralia, tends to produce the Pharisee — the exclusive and cold Puritan. On the other hand, an indifference to the hard logic and cutting edge of Biblical Doctrine, and a corresponding over-stress on what one might call “do-goodery,” tends to produce the Pelagian. For instance, consider this example of a Pastoral rejection:— In the course of my Chaplaincy work at Concord Hospital [1], I once had to ask a priest of this Diocese, with some repute as a theologian, to go and break the news of a death to a family in his parish — they were not on the phone, and I was unable to go myself. He declined the task: he said, “I don’t know those people, and anyway, it’s a job for the police.” And so, the police it had to be — and I may add that the widow told me later how kind the constable had been. There was an ordained man who certainly knew, and in a sense accepted the relevant doctrine; yet he remained unmoved by its practical implications. He quite literally stayed put, seated in his study. Other examples will no doubt occur to you as they do to me (all too often to the disquiet af my own conscience) of the Pastoral rejection.

The contemporary Doctrinal rejection of the Biblical view of the nature of God and of Man, and of the God/Man relationship, may be seen within the Church on two levels — on the high intellectual plane, in the theories of the ultra-modernist theologians: e.g. “The Myth of God Incarnate;” the “God is Dead” school, etc. etc. Their particular and common target is always the historicity of the Gospel according to Saint John, and a typical phrase of theirs is “The writer of ‘John’ puts so and so into the mouth of Jesus”— or, “The writer of ‘Ephesians’ makes Paul say such and such.”

And at the grass-roots level, again among people who still “profess and call themselves Christians,” this same doctrinal rejection is seen in the proliferation of such Arian sects as the Witnesses and the Armstrong people — finally tapering off into the limbo of the Moonies, the esoteric, and the occult.

Outside the Church, the same rejection of Biblical doctrine has produced those who range from the complacent “reverent agnostic” to the aggressively dogmatic atheist. And also (and this in countries with a long Christian tradition) to a considerable growth of Islam — essentially an Arian religion. So much for the Doctrine of God.

The parallel contemporary rejection of the profoundly pessimistic Biblical Doctrine of the nature of “Unaided Man,” that is, Man-without-God, is obvious in most politico-social theory and practice; which ranges from the complacent to the starry-eyed in its view of unaided human nature. At its most optimistic it readily assumes the common human possession (and willing exercise) of a strong sense of moral obligation based on an acute moral judgment.

And yet, parallel with this unscriptural optimism in our society (which reflects a subconscious memory of a Christian ethic on the part of those who consciously reject that ethic’s enabling God), there is an equally wide-spread and unscriptural pessimism as to the nature of Man. I mean the common acceptance of those psychological theories which appear (to me at least) to reduce a man to a mere, though infinitely complex, electronic device. Hence one speaks no longer of “wicked persons,” but only of “mal-adjusted personalities.” The impression is given that, when same appropriately trained mechanic locates and twiddles the appropriate knobs, a well-adjusted personality will at once and inevitably appear. Indeed, where such concepts are fully and earnestly accepted, one is constrained to feel that to intrude such words as “immoral,” and above all, such God-centred words as “sinful,” is to commit a positive impropriety!

But how abysmally pessimistic this ultra-modern view of human nature is, compared with that of Scripture; it is sufficiently revealed, I think, by just one passage (and that from the Old Testament): “Come now, let us reason together, says the Lord.” There is something so right, responsible and reassuring in this simple, awesome picture of God, and of one made in His own image, in a rational discussion of the concept and problem of sin. (Isaiah 1:18).

To sum up this part of our study one may, I believe, quite reasonably assert that the state of our world as it now is, logically results from the passive ignorance or active rejection of the truth about God and Man and their mutual relationship. To an extent, of course, these destructive errors are coeval with humanity itself, but the deadly process is accelerating at so terrifying a rate in our own day as to produce extreme confusion in both Church and State (and that at all levels) as to what is the good and right and proper thing to do.

As an instance of confusion in the Christian ranks, one might cite the controversy over the World Council of Churches’ aid to various Communist regimes — regimes ex hypothese militantly atheistic and anti-Christian. I will not buy into that debate, save to suggest that it provides some pointer as to how far one may play politics in the kingdoms of this world without prejudice to the rights and responsibilities of the Kingdom of Heaven and at what point Christian charity might become something quite other.

Yet it is in this era of unprecedented change, confusion, perplexity and debate, that the Anglican Communion has elected to produce its various new Prayer Books (our own “An Australian Prayer Book” among them) and has, by and large, rejected the old Book in practice, while still paying it lipservice in principle. It is not surprising therefor that these new Books, and specifically A.A.P.B., reflect the era of their conception and birth in that they are, through and through, essays in compromise and mutual accommodation.

Whether or not the aim was to do so, it does in fact enable clerics of every conceivable school of thought in the Australian Church, through the Book’s infinity of alternatives, to construct “an acceptable Service” for their own use — and that at their own choice and pleasure. Apart from the provision (in itself inevitably and deeply divisive both doctrinally and pastorally) of two complete forms for all the major Services, the number of alternatives internal to each Service leaves the final product very much in the priest’s own hands. This “Rector’s Use” is further facilitated by the frequent soft directive “the Priest may.” Compare the B.C.P.’s imperative: “The Priest shall.”

Suffice it to say that, as a matter of pure mathematics, there are at least 16,384 possible ways of saying the Second Order of the Communion; such being the number of possible permutations and combinations provided by the rubrical either/or choices. In short, in that respect we are back in the medieval morass to which Cranmer refers in his Preface “Concerning the Service of the Church”: he writes, “The number and hardness of the Rules called the Pie, and the manifold changings of the Service was such, that to turn the Book only was so hard and intricate a matter, that many times there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out.” What then, by contrast to the new, are the positive merits of the old Book? One cannot do better than to continue to quote its original editor, Thomas Cranmer. He says that he aimed to provide:—

  1. A plain and simple Calendar, to enable the reading of Scripture to be done in order, “without breaking one piece from another.”
  2. Keep Rubrics as few as may be; plain and easy to grasp.
  3. The Service itself short, plain, and easy to follow.
  4. Nothing to be read but Scripture “or that which is agreeable to the same, and that in such language and order as both hearers and readers shall find most easy and plain.”
  5. To eliminate “the great diversity in saying and singing in Churches within this Realm,” in favour of a single and uniform Use.

An advocote for A.A.P.B. (the Rev. John Thorne, in a letter to Church Scene) quoted “a senior priest of this Diocese” as saying, “Cranmer had an easy job: he revised the Liturgy and secular authority imposed it —neither clergy nor laity had any say in it.”

Apart from the fact that this begs the question whether Cranmer did a better job, it ignores the facts of history. Cranmer’s basic format for the Book, and the ideals and doctrines which fixed that form, not only survived some 450 years of actual practical use; from the time of Edward Vl onwards it also survived endless debates on projected changes — debates by laymen in Parliament, by clerics in Synods and Convocations, and by both in Conventions and Conferences.

From 1645 to 1661, [The Prayer Book] suffered sixteen years of suppression and disuse — when, indeed, it was an indictable offence even to possess a private copy. The Book’s restoration in its present 1662 form was first debated for no less than four months on end at the Savoy Conference between the leading Anglican, Congregational and Presbyterian theologians of the day. The official Anglican comment on the lengthy argument is the Prayer Book Preface beginning, “It has been the wisdom of the Church of England . . .”, written by Bishop Sandersen of Lincoln, who himself took part throughout.

It is a long, but temperate and fair statement, and also an excellent example of formal and dignified English a century after Cranmer —when his language was already “old-fashioned.” The great point is that the Book was finally restored essentially as Cranmer left it, and that it continued in use, in the same form and despite further attempts at revision, for another three centuries down to our own day. This capacity for survival is the truest vindication of the quality and the utility of Cranmer’s work, as a compendium of Doctrine and as an instrument of the Pastoral Ministry.

The Book’s lasting appeal results, so I believe, from Cranmer’s constant stress on uniformity and ease of use on Scriptural content; on clarity; simplicity, and brevity: a brevity which has always enabled the Epistles and Gospels to be printed in full within the Book itself. Compare the verbose complexity of A.A.P.B., with its infinity of alternatives — a prolixity which necessarily reduces the Epistles and Gospels to mere notes of chapter and verse.

Perhaps one might digress here to quote some statistics on this matter of Scriptural content in the two Books?

I estimate that in my own pocket Prayer Book — on India paper, small Pica, Oxford edition of 652 pages (about 62,000 line-inches, or three quarters of a mile) 404 pages, or 62% of the whole, are actual words of Scripture. That is to say, the Psalter, the Canticles, the Decalogue and the Epistles and Gospels. By contrast, the much bulkier A.A.P.B. (635 pages and about 82,000 line-inches, or a mile and a quarter) has only some 200 pages of Scripture text, again including the Psalter, the Canticles, and the many brief Sentences, that is, about 31% of the whole Book. As a consequence, A.A.P.B. cannot be used as a study source in Doctrine, or as a hand-book of Pastoralia, without the addition of a Bible, whereas the B.C.P. contains within itself sufficient Biblical text to establish all the major doctrines formulated in the Creeds, and to illustrate both the pastoral purpose and the dynamic of the various Services.

As to Doctrine, the outstanding characteristic of the B.C.P. is crystal clear; it is deeply and uncompromisingly Trinitarian. That means that its ultimate Scriptural roots are Johannine. And that in turn is so, because its earliest liturgical roots are Ephesian and Gallican. That is to say, the earliest British liturgy, which Augustine of Canterbury found already in use (to his considerable surprise) when he arrived from Rome in 597 A.D., must have been derived, in the latter days of the Western Roman Empire, from Gaul. (By the time of Augustine it had become France). The first Christian missionaries to that country, and there to Britain, appear to have been Greeks from Ephesus (via Marseilles and Lyons), rather than Latins from Rome. The city of Rome, and indeed the whole of Italy, become very much a back-water in the century 450/550, by-passed by the continuing stream of sea-borne trade from the Middle East to Marseilles, France, and the British tin mines.

The key witness to this ancient Gallic link with Ephesus (and so with St. John) is Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons. In his old age, c. 200 A.D., in a letter to his friend Florinus, he tells of his Ephesian boyhood and the good Polycarp. He writes: “I recall the events of that time better than those of recent years (for what we learn in childhood keeps pace with the growing mind and becomes part of it), so that I can see the very place where the blessed Polycarp used to sit; his manner; his appearance; how he used to tell us of his talks with John and others who had seen the Lord; how he would relate from memory their account of Christ’s teaching and mighty works — in exact accord with the written Gospels.” Irenaeus was in fact defending “John” from the heretics then in vogue.

And here is something for us! Irenaeus continues: “If that blessed and apostolic Elder had heard what is being taught today, he would have cried aloud, “Good God! for what sort of times hast Thou kept me, that I should endure these things’.”

Certainly among the things I myself find hard to endure in A.A.P.B. is the replacing of “Sundays after Trinity” by the vapid and meaningless “Ordinary Sunday;” supinely following Rome in this, as in the lame greeting “And also with you” and much else. Nothing more painfully reveals the lack of historical imagination and sense of tradition of A.A.P.B.’s compilors! I say this, without reserve or apology, because the naming of Sundays “after Trinity” is the most ancient distinguishing mark of Anglicanism. It is found in the very earliest Office Books and is shared only by the German Church, which acquired the custom from Winfred of Crediton, the Devonshire man who became the first Archbishop of Mainz in 743 A.D. and for many years worked in Germany assisted by other English missionaries: Germany was in fact the first Anglican mission field. Winfred is better known as Boniface, his name “in Religion.”

The custom deliberately directs constant attention upon Trinity Sunday itself, as the pivot of the Christian Year. And as we shall see, the Trinity Collect bears a significant mark of very ancient Gallican origin. As to the scheme of the Year itself, the first half, from Advent to Trinity, is primarily Doctrinal. That is to say, the Collects, Epistles ond Gospels combining to present a memorial of primary truths; before God in acts of worship; before men in words of instruction. Trinity Sunday marks the climax of worship and is therefore illustrated, in the passage from Revelation, by the worship of Heaven itself.

And the Sundays after Trinity, far from being Ordinary, form a similar and complementary system, which is primarily Pastorol in intent. That is, they set out Christian character and service as loosed upon and motivated by the truths already revealed, and the example of Christ Himself. The theme of this latter half-year is: “This is the victory that overcomes the World, even our Faith.”

While on this subject of Trinity, note the verbal force and precision of the B.C.P. over against the slackness of A.A.P.B. The first ends the Trinity Collect with: “Who livest and reignest, one God, world without end.” That foreshadows the hammer-like Ones in the Trinity Preface: “Who art one God, one Lord . . one Substance”— and shows why “the words Holy Father must be omitted on Trinity Sunday.” A.A.P.B., while having the gall still to call it “the B.C.P. Collect.” replaces the above final phrase by “Through Christ our Lord,” and dispels the solemn obscurity (appropriate to the theme) of “In the power of the Divine Majesty to worship the Unity,” by intruding two personal pronouns! One wonders who made this possibly Arian suggestion, and on what grounds the suggestion was adopted. Note also how A.A.P.B. (bracketting a more Trinitarian alternative) deliberately snubs the B.C.P. by opening its own Trinity Collect with the word “Father.”

Note also how, in the Consecration Prayers of both its Communion Orders, A.A.P.B. inserts a personal pronoun which is in none of the relevant Greek texts. These all use the one word “ eucharistesas” which the B. C. P. correctly renders as “when he had given thanks.” A.A.P.B. gratuitously adds “to You.” If one may reverently say so, this intrudes God the Father at the very moment when one’s whole concentration should be on the action and purpose of God the Son. It tends to divide the Trinity, again in an Arian direction.

In my own view, the use of plural personal pronouns in addressing the Deity is a defect in A.A.P.B., and that for two reasons. It is wrong theologically since God is One; it is a blemish also, in the same sense and for the same reason, as is the endless repetition of “Yahweh” in the Jerusalem Bible. Of course the Tetragrammaton (the Four Letters) outlines the Personal Name of God! Of course it may have been pronounced “Yahweh!” And of course You, Your, Your’s are universal practice in a modern English grown imperfect and imprecise by losing its singular personal pronouns!

But just as, for three thousand years, some profound instinct has impelled both the Hebrews and the Universal Church not to pronounce that Name at all, but rather to veil it by honorifics (Adonai, Kyrios, Dominus, Lord), so, surely, a similar instinct of awe and propriety has led the Anglican Communion to continue until now this ancient usage? It is essentially correct in theology and grammar and, with its disappearance from common speech, it provides an exclusive form of address to the One Who is wholly Other and Unique. See the excellent discussion of this matter in the Preface to the R.S.V. Bible.

Consider also the significant fact that, when the men of the Savoy Conference debated the form of the new Prayer Book literally word by word, nobody suggested changing the pronouns. Yet Thou, Thee, Thy and Thine were already, in 1662, provincial and obsolescent. Indeed, when the first Quakers, some twenty years later, revived the use of the words in their ordinary conversation, it was regarded as an amusing oddity of the sect. But even so, as late as 1928, when the Prayer Book was again examined and debated both by clergy and laity, I cannot recall that there was any suggestion to alter the pronouns. Instead it was left to Pelagian self-assurance of an age so informally at ease in Zion as we are today.

Any future editions of the B.C.P. should certainly have a similar explanatory Preface to that in the R.S.V., vindicating its claim to be, on this point as on others, doctrinally more correct thon its successor.

While on this point of appropriate language — consider the B.C.P. Psalter! If I had my own time over again as a parish priest, I would make infinitely more use of that wonderful mine of teaching and preaching material, and I would stick as close as I could to the Psalter’s strong, terse, basic English. How few words really need changing! “Fie” is one, and “naughty” another. “The congregation of naughty men” can only raise a laugh today: it is kid-stuff. But it was once a fighting word, which I remember hearing as a boy in its old sense. Still vivid is the wrath and contempt in the deep Lancashire voice crying, “He’s as nowt as can be!”. An Australian might put it, “He’s a right bastard!” And of course “Leasing” is now all real estate, and “the noise of the waterpipes” pure plumbing — but it is hard to think of other completely “lost” words in this most wonderful compilation, which speaks so timelessly to all humanity of human need, pain, and perplexity; of rescue and renewal; of the exaltation of the praise of God.

In particular, I have used the Psalms more and more in my long ministry to the sick and bereaved; the very hopelessness of some of the Psalms about death and the Here-after, provides a useful foil and lead-up to the Christian assurance.

The stuff of the Imprecatory Psalms is in every daily paper: the terrorist; the guerilla; the demented Christian Irishman, demonstrating so tragically that corrupt nature that “doth remain, yea in them that are regenerate.” You need not sing these passages in Church — but you can teach and preach from them as never before, in today’s mad world.

So what are the B.C.P.’s main doctrinal bases? First, it is most strongly Trinitarian, as shown by the prominence of the Athanasian Creed. This is another Gallican feature, ascribed by same to Victricius, Bishop of Rouen, c. 400 A.D. (It was not used in Rome until the 10th century and comes in A.A.P.B. after the Copyright Acknowledgments). But not only does the old Book display this Creed; it orders its frequent recital. That was not so hard as today’s Church folk might think. I once attended a working-class Manchester church which sang it, with full choral honours, on every specified Sunday. It deeply impressed my young mind; those sonorous reiterated phrases, defining what God is and what He is not, stay as clear to me as Polycarp’s voice did to old Irenaeus.

In pastoral work, a clear Trinitarian faith is of the essence; investing the words and acts of our blessed Lord with all the authority, wisdom and compassion of Almighty God. That is, of “the Son Almighty.” At a funeral for example, the very first word, “I,” introduces Him: the next word, “am,” opens His ultimate statement on the nature and source of Eternal Life. Point to the infinite knowledge and compassion of that Person; that Man speaking to a bereaved woman just after a burial (to correct the inadequate idea of the Hereafter she already had), and there is a pastoral theme full of that sublime confidence of triumph in Christ, of which Bishop Renfrey speaks in this context.

And to teach and preach about God the Holy Spirit as a Person; as a living, loving Guide, Friend and Enabler; can infuse Confirmation, Marriage, and indeed Ordination itself, with a sense of purpose, partnership, and power; in short, with a confidence which is the reverse of self-confidence. For me the profoundest word in this connection, which has checked me on the edge of many a sin and folly, is “Grieve not the Holy Spirit.” What but love is more personal than grief — and how inextricably the two can mingle!

This intense unquestioning conviction of the Personal participation and purpose of God the Holy Spirit inspires the B.CP.’s triumphant invitation: “Seeing that this Child is by Baptism regenerate, let us give thanks to Almighty God.” That is, to “the Holy Ghost Almighty.” Thanks for incorporation into His family is specifically and correctly addressed to God the Father. That is, to “the Father Almighty.” “Yet not three Almighties: but one Almighty.”

Compare the old Gallican Baptismal Office, like the Liturgy already mentioned, in the Trinitarian tradition of Polycarp and John: “Let us humbly pray our Almighty Creator and Restorer to transfuse efficacy into this Water, and by the presence of the Majesty of the Trinity, give power to effect the most holy Regeneration.” Compare the “Majesty” in the B.C.P. Trinity Collect, which suggests a common source. Again it seems to me that, preached and taught pastorally, B.C.P.’s Baptismal doctrine is strong, clear, concise “and full of comforts.”

But it is “comforting” solely because of the truth of the second great doctrine of the B.C P. That is, the fallen nature of Man, whereby a universal Hereditary Factor is the true fount and origin of sin and error; the primary reason why “there was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so sure established, which in continuance of time has not been corrupted.” The pithy and pungent Anglican summary of this Johannine, Pauline, Augustinian doctrine is Article 9 of the Thirty-nine.

A real grasp of the implications of this trenchant Article would, I am convinced, produce more perceptive points, more compassionate pastors and even, perhaps, more proficient politicians. It should be had by heart for it is most true to Life, even in its glum admission that “this infection of nature doth remain, yea in them that are regenerated”— as every parish priest knows to his sorrow. The point of this Article is certainly the “point of entry” of the B.C.P. Baptismal Offices, both of which open with the blunt statement, “all men are conceived and born in sin.” And you find something similar at or near the opening of all the other Services, including the Litany.

But notice how A.A.P.B. drops “miserable Sinners” from the opening of its own Litany, and any reference to a hereditary factor in its Baptismal Services. The fact that we are “born with a sinful nature” is admitted in its Catechism — an example of the ambiguity and divided counsels of this Book which, with its euphemistic language and soft doctrinal emphases, is all too likely to appeal to the Arian and Pelagian temper of the age in which we live. And that is essentially why the robust Johannine/Pauline stress of the B.C.P. Services provides (as Article 35 puts it) “a godly and wholesome Doctrine, and necessary for these times.”

How many have longed to remould the old Book closer to their own hearts’ desire! Ultramontanists, Modernists, Calvinists*, Leftists, Sentimentalists, and yet others moved seemingly by the sheer restless, changeful, hyper-critical spirit of the age. In any event: we Australians have now to cope with the tangible product of a drastic re-drafting carried out amid so many diverse, direct and indirect pressures, motives, theories, interests and desires. A mess it is, and it looks like the end of the old Book and the old ways.

Which is just what Richard Hooker thought as he sat down in 1595 to write the Preface of his great exposition and defences of the Anglican ethics and practice “The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity.” He was convinced (rightly as it proved) that the ardent Calvinist party within the Church would eventually abolish the Prayer Book, and perhaps also the Episcopate. He therefore wrote (and I end with my own precis of his words):—

“Let us put on record the present state of this Church of England so that, come what may, posterity at least may know the ideals we followed, and how far our efforts have achieved that ideal.”

“Maybe I shall incur the common fate of all who gainsay this revisionist party of ours, yet since they are fellow-Christians, beloved in Christ and born of Him, let our own love be impervious to all gall and bitterness — rather may the God of peace enable us to suffer all things quietly, for the sake of the work we covet to perform.”

“It was indeed the very zeal and fervour of this party in our Church which moved me to this study and issued in this defence. It seemed to argue a very strong case when so many sincerely devout men so strongly insisted that we were dutybound to join them in the system they call ‘the Lord’s Discipline.’ And so, I studied their case against us as thoroughly and objectively as I knew how. Yet, for all my care and labour to see their point, I remain convinced that neither Scripture nor their own Book proves our Anglican position in error. Rather, on Paul’s principle of ‘holding fast what is good,’ I believe we are right in resisting as best we may any departure from that position since it is our critics who, in our view, stand on a weaker Scriptural basis.”

Replacing “The Lord’s Discipline” by “An Australian Prayer Book” would certainly appear to extend the great Elizabethan’s Apology, even to cover the hard situation of present-day lovers of “The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments according to the Use of the Church of England.”


The Rev’d Ralph Ogden was a retired priest of the Archidiocese of Sydney and died on the 8th July, 1993.

He was a serious Scholar, Teacher and Examining Chaplain to three Archbishops of Sydney (1956-68) as well as a Rector, Army Chaplain (Active Service) and Hospital Chaplain.

This address was given in 1980 at Moore Theological College, Sydney, New South Wales. Fr. Ogden’s close friend Dr. Llewellyn Wheeler has kindly supplied the following biographical note on the life of a quite extraordinary priest.

The Rev. Ralph OGDEN was born in Manchester and educated at the Cheshire High School, where he received a splendid classical education (the students even replied in Latin at roll-call:”adsum”!). The London “strikes” and industrial unrest after World War I destroyed his father’s automotive business — a car which reached a speed of 20 mph. on the flat! was produced — so the family migrated to Western Australia but again failed in attempting to re-develop closed gold mines. The next venture was a success (an electric welding business near Broadway, Sydney). Ralph sold his share to pay for his fees at Moore College whence he was made Deacon in 1939 and ordained Priest in 1940. He served his Title at St Matthew’s, Manly and then was appointed Rector of Wallerawang. He served as Chaplain (A.I.F) in N. Queensland, Papua, New Guinea and Borneo. Before the Borneo Landings he would celebrate on a barge and many would receive the Sacrament. He often told a happy story of what happened after the landings — many families, especially Chinese, had children awaiting a Christian priest to baptise them. At the Baptism all would sing “O come all ye faithful” at Ralph’s suggestion — the only hymn they all knew, although in varying languages!

Ralph had a profound theological knowledge and was a very clear tutor. He made a modern translation of Athanasius (296-373) “Cur Deus Homo?” (“Why did God become Man?”) and wrote “Ladder of Time” (1970) with “suggested answers to some notorious problems in Old Testament History, Statistics and Dating”. He was also a certain authority on the early history of the Church in Sydney and especially the early years of the Church in Sydney.

His “passion for souls” was shown in his eagerness to give assistance at churches quite different from those of the Sydney tradition, including the Church of King Charles the Martyr, Padstow, N.S.W. where he would travel to celebrate at 9 am. each Sunday until the Rev. John Keep (Deacon) was ordained Priest and took over the parish.

He was a friend of Bishop Albert Haley for whom he would frequently celebrate at 8 am.(l662) at All Saints’, Wickham Terrace, Brisbane, when Bishop Haley was Rector there, before he became Bishop for the “Continuum”. He was also a life-long friend of the late Albert Pitt-Owen, a “Rat of Tobruk,” with whom he had shared similar army chaplaincies.


NOTE:

1. The Repatriation Hospital for ex-servicemen in suburban Sydney built on the Estate of Sir Thomas Walker, and Dame Edith his daughter. Sir Thomas built St. Luke’s Concord, and he and his daughter were very generous benefactors of religious, educational and philanthropic enterprises in New South Wales from the 1840’s to the 1930’s.

* In recent years there has been a rather hardline recrudesence of Calvinism in the Archdiocese of Sydney.

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The St. John’s, Newfoundland branch usually hosts four (4) meetings a year, and publishes an occasional newsletter. It also promotes and distributes the St. Peter Publications Prayer Book Calendar in the area.

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Mr. Wesley Warren – 613.726.6341

 

Quebec & Ontario – Toronto

The Toronto Branch of the Prayer Book Society of Canada was formed in 1991. Its mandate is to further the aims of the Society in the Diocese of Toronto. The many activities of the branch include:

  • Bringing the concerns of the Society before bishops and theological colleges;
  • Organizing lectures and workshops to provide teaching on the Prayer Book and the classical Anglican way;
  • Producing a quarterly newsletter to inform members of our activities and concerns;
  • Holding events to introduce young people to the Book of Common Prayer and the riches of our Anglican heritage;
  • Providing bursaries and other assistance to divinity students sympathetic to the use of the Book of Common Prayer;
  • Producing literature on aspects of the Prayer Book and Anglicanism;
  • Assisting needy parishes with the purchase of Prayer Books;
  • Organizing services of worship according to the Book of Common Prayer;
  • Making common cause with other groups that are committed to the spiritual renewal of our Church.

To become a member, or to be placed on the branch mailing list, please contact the branch president, Dr. Diana Verseghy (details below). There is no membership fee, but donations are gratefully received and are tax-deductible. Receipts are issued for all donations of $10 or more.

Branch Publications

The Lamp: Aug 2016 | Feb 2016 | Dec 2015 Sept 2015 Mar 2015 Dec 2014 | Sept 2014 | May 2014 | February 2014 | December 2013 | September 2013 | April 2013 | February 2013 | December 2012 | September 2012 | April 2012 | February 2012 | December 2011 | September 2011 | May 2011 | March 2011 | October 2010 | April 2010 | February 2010 | March 2009 | December 2008 | September 2008

President’s Letters:  Aug 2016 | Feb 2016 | Dec 2015 | Sept 2015 | Mar 2015 | Dec 2014 |  | May 2014 | February 2014 | December 2013 | September 2013 | April 2013 | February 2013 | November 2012 | September 2012 | April 2012 | February 2012 | December 2011 | September 2011 | April 2011 | March 2011 | November 2010 | September 2010 | April 2010 | February 2010 | November 2009 | April 2009 | February 2009 | November 2008

Branch Contact
Dr. Diana Verseghy – 905.303.4490 | diana.verseghy AT sympatico DOT ca

 

Quebec & Ontario – Greater Niagara

The Greater Niagara Branch (formerly the Niagara North and St. Catherine’s-Niagara branches) encompasses the area of the Anglican Church of Canada’s Niagara Diocese.
The branch maintains a Facebook group, and publishes a quarterly newsletter The Niagara Light.

The Branch is very youth-oriented, with very active young members who fill many of the executive positions – from recording secretary to web master.

Members of the branch also support the St. Michael’s Youth Conference of Ontario, Essentials Niagara and Anglican Essentials Canada, as well as their own parishes and the diocese.
An annual meeting with election of officers is held in the winter and other ad hoc events, including barbeque’s and wine tours etc., happen with frequency and informality.

Branch Contact
[N/A]

 

Quebec & Ontario – Grand Valley

The Grand Valley branch covers the central part of South-Western Ontario, from the shore of Lake Erie to Georgian Bay.

The branch hopes to form an Institute in the Saugeen – Georgian Bay area. The Branch sends out a quarterly newsletter, “The Epistle,” with “The Lamp,” the joint publication of the Ontario branches. It also gives financial support to the Ontario St. Michael’s Youth Conference. It hosts an annual “Church Crawl,” an exploration of three or four historic churches in the area, on a summer Saturday afternoon.

An annual meeting with election of officers is usually held in October.

Branch Publications
“The Lamp” is a cooperative publication of Ontario branches [click here]

Branch Contact
Mr. Brian Munro – 519.756.3053 | brianmunro AT rogers DOT com

 

Quebec & Ontario – Windsor

Covering the Windsor area.

Branch Contact
The Rev. Gordon Maitland – 519.254.290 [?]

 

Quebec & Ontario – North Bay

Covering the North Bay area.

Branch Contact
The Rev. John Stennett – jamlsnb AT cogeco DOT ca

 

The West – Saskatoon

The Saskatoon branch is the only one in the entire province, and its boundaries are co-terminous with the Diocese of Saskatoon, which stretches across the middle of Saskatchewan. The branch hosted the PBSC’s National AGM in 2005 and encourages all its members to donate to the national body rather than to the branch, whose small overheads are easily covered by the coffee money collected at meetings.

Members of the branch meet at All Saints’ Church, 1801 Lorne Avenue in Saskatoon, which is now the only church in the city to use the BCP at all services. Meetings are held monthly from September through April, except for December, when the parish’s Christmas program takes precedence. The branch was set up as the result of a visit by the PBSC’s former chairman, Mr. Michael Edward, and is motivated by his injunction to “educate ourselves.” Several members of the branch have given lectures on such subjects as Anglican hymnody and various books of the Old Testament. Lectures given by eminent theologians, including some delivered at the Atlantic School of Theology and recorded on DVD for Parish Alive, have been watched and discussed, and recently the branch has studied a course by Dr. Michael Green, also recorded as a DVD. All meetings are open to the general public.

The branch has been delighted to host two book-signing visits from Sue Careless to promote vols. I and II of “Discovering the Book of Common Prayer: A Hands On Approach.” Both volumes sold well, and members look forward to welcoming Sue back with her forthcoming final volume in the trilogy.

Branch Contact
The Ven. Richard Spencer- 306.649.3448 | kentvic AT gmail DOT com

 

The West – Calgary

The Calgary branch serves the parishes of southern Alberta promoting the historic traditions and apostolic teachings of the Church of England and the Book of Common Prayer.  We are currently looking for a parish to champion our goals in supporting evangelism, defending biblical orthodoxy, and promotion the teachings and use of the BCP.

Website: http://www.bcp-calgary.ca/

Fr. Rob Taylor, President – 403.612.5721 | fr.rob AT shaw DOT ca

 

The West – Edmonton

The Edmonton branch covers the diocese of Edmonton, and draws most of its members from the city of Edmonton. Branch events are held at churches in Edmonton, and include a Speaker Series co-sponsored by various parishes in the diocese, Evensongs, and an occasional Hymn-Sing. The branch also publishes a quarterly newsletter.

Branch Contact
Mr. John Matthews – 780.457.2207

 

The West – Vancouver

In abeyance.

 

The West – Vancouver Island

The Vancouver Island branch meets on the third Saturday of every other month, from January to November. A social barbeque is usually held in Nanaimo in July. Meetings are held at various churches throughout the Island, with at least one each year in Victoria. An Annual Meeting is held in November, and an executive elected for the calendar year. A small newsletter is published before each general meeting.

Meetings start with a business meeting at 11 am, followed by lunch at noon, a speaker at 1 p.m., and Evensong at 2:30. The speakers, usually clergy from the diocese, cover a wide range of topics and points of view, but always touch on issues of interest to members.

At present the branch draws members from all over Vancouver Island, but due to the difficulty of travel, especially in winter, a separate branch (or institute) may soon be set up in Victoria.
The branch also sponsors a bursary of $500 for a student in the Anglican Studies program at Regent College (Vancouver) who is planning to work in the Anglican Church of Canada.

Branch Publications
Newsletter – October 2012

Branch Contact
Ms. Heather Herbison – Heather707ca AT yahoo DOT ca

 

The Preface (1662)

THE PREFACE

PREFIXED AT THE REVISION OF 1662

     IT hath been the wisdom of the Church of England, ever since the first compiling of her Public Liturgy, to keep the mean between the two extremes, of too much stiffness in refusing, and too much easiness in admitting any variation from it. For, as on the one side common experience showeth, that where a change hath been made of things advisedly established (no evident necessity so requiring) sundry inconveniences have thereupon ensued; and those many times more and greater than the evils, that were intended to be remedied by such change: So on the other side, the particular Forms of Divine worship, and the Rites and Ceremonies appointed to be used therein, being things in their own nature indifferent, and alterable, and so acknowledged; it is but reasonable, that upon weighty and important considerations, according to the various exigency of times and occasions, such changes and alterations should be made therein, as to those that are in place of Authority should from time to time seem either necessary or expedient. Accordingly we find, that in the Reigns of several Princes of blessed memory since the Reformation, the Church, upon just and weighty considerations her thereunto moving, hath yielded to make such alterations in some particulars, as in their respective times were thought convenient: Yet so, as that the main Body and Essentials of it (as well in the chiefest materials, as in the frame and order therof) have still continued the same unto this day, and do yet stand firm and unshaken, notwithstanding all the vain attempts and impetuous assaults made against it, by such men as are given to change, and have always discovered a greater regard to their own private fancies and interests, than to that duty they owe to the public.
     By which undue means, and for what mischievous purposes the use of the Liturgy (though enjoined by the Laws of the Land, and those Laws never yet repealed) came, during the late unhappy confusions, to be discontinued, is too well known to the world, and we are not willing here to remember. But when, upon His Majesty’s happy Restoration, it seemed probable, that, amongst other things, the use of the Liturgy also would return of course (the same having never been legally abolished) unless some timely means were used to prevent it; those men who under the late usurped powers had made it a great part of their business to render the people disaffected thereunto, saw themselves in point of reputation and interest concerned (unless they would freely acknowledge themselves to have erred, which such men are very hardly brought to do) with their utmost endeavours to hinder the restitution thereof. In order whereunto divers Pamphlets were published against the Book of Common Prayer, the old Objections mustered up, with the addition of some new ones, more than formerly had been made, to make the number swell. In fine, great importunities were used to His Sacred Majesty, that the said Book might be revised, and such Alterations therein, and Additions thereunto made, as should be thought requisite for the ease of tender Consciences: whereunto His Majesty, out of his pious inclination to give satisfaction (so far as could be reasonably expected) to all his subjects of what persuasion soever, did graciously condescend.
     In which review we have endeavoured to observe the like moderation, as we find to have been used in the like case in former times. And therefore of the sundry Alterations proposed unto us, we have rejected all such as were either of dangerous consequence (as secretly striking at some established Doctrine, or laudable Practice of the Church of England, or indeed of the whole Catholic Church of Christ) or else of no consequence at all, but utterly frivolous and vain. But such Alterations as were tendered to us (by what persons, under what pretences, or to what purpose soever so tendered) as seemed to us in any degree requisite or expedient, we have willingly, and of our own accord assented unto: not enforced so to do by any strength of Argument, convincing us of the necessity of making the said Alterations: For we are fully persuaded in our judgements (and here we profess it to the world) that the Book, as it stood before established by Law, doth not contain in it any thing contrary to the Word of God, or to sound Doctrine, or which a godly man may not with a good Conscience use and submit unto, or which is not fairly defensible against any that shall oppose the same; if it shall be allowed such just and favourable construction as in common Equity ought to be allowed to all human Writings, especially such as are set forth by Authority, and even to the very best translations of the holy Scripture itself.
     Our general aim therefore in this undertaking was, not to gratify this or that party in any their unreasonable demands; but to do that, which to our best understandings we conceived might most tend to the preservation of Peace and Unity in the Church; the procuring of Reverence, and exciting of Piety and Devotion in the Public Worship of God; and the cutting off occasion from them that seek occasion of cavail or quarrel against the Liturgy of the Church. And as to the several variations from the former Book, whether by Alteration, Addition, or otherwise, it shall suffice to give this general account, That most of the Alterations were made, either first, for the better direction of them that are to officiate in any part of Divine Service: which is chiefly done in the Calendars and Rubrics: Or secondly, for the more proper expressing of some words or phrases of ancient usage in terms more suitable to the language of the present times, and the clearer explanation of some other words and phrases, that were either of doubtful signification, or otherwise liable to misconstruction: Or thirdly, for a more perfect rendering of such portions of holy Scripture, as are inserted into the Liturgy; which, in the Epistles and Gospels especially, and in sundry other places, are now ordered to be read according to the last Translation: and that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places; particularly for those at Sea, together with an office for the Baptism of such as are of Riper Years: which, although not so necessary when the former Book was compiled, yet by the growth of Anabaptism, through the licentiousness of the late times crept in amonst us, is now become necessary, and may be always useful for the baptizing of Natives in our Plantations, and other converted to the Faith. If any man, who shall desire a more particular account of the several Alterations in any part of the Liturgy, shall take the pains to compare the present Book with the former; we doubt not but the reason of the change may easily appear.
     And having thus endeavoured to discharge our duties in this weighty affair, as in the sight of God, and to approve our sincerity therein (so far as lay in us) to the consciences of all men; although we know it impossible (in such variety of apprehensions, humours and interests, as are in the world) to please all; nor can expect that men of factious, peevish, and perverse spirits should be satisfied with any thing that can be done in this kind by any other than themselves: Yet we have good hope, that what is here presented, and hath been by the Convocations of both Provinces with great diligence examined and approved, will be also well accepted and approved by all sober, peaceable, and truly conscientious Sons of the Church of England.

The Original Preface (1549)

THE ORIGINAL PREFACE (1549)

ALTERED IN 1552 AND 1662 CONCERNING THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH

     THERE was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so sure established, which in continuance of time hath not been corrupted: As, among other things, it may plainly appear by the Common Prayers in the Church, commonly called Divine Service. The first original and ground whereof if a man would search out by the ancient Fathers, he shall find, that the same was not ordained but of a good purpose, and for a great advancement of godliness. For they so ordered the matter, that all the whole Bible (or the greatest part thereof) should be read over once every year; intending thereby, that the Clergy, and especially such as were Ministers in the congregation, should (by often reading, and meditation in God’s word) be stirred up to godliness themselves, and be more able to exhort others by wholesome doctrine, and to confute them that were adversaries to the truth; and further, that the people (by daily hearing of holy Scripture read in the Church) might continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true Religion.
     But these many years passed, this godly and decent order of the ancient Fathers hath been so altered, broken, and neglected, by planting in uncertain Stories, and Legends, with multitude of Responds, Verses, vain Repetitions, Commemorations, and Synodals; that commonly when any Book of the Bible was begun, after three or four Chapters were read out, all the rest were unread. And in this sort the Book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, and the Book of Genesis in Septuagesima; but they were only begun, and never read through: After like sort were other Books of holy Scripture used. And moreover, whereas St. Paul would have such language spoken to the people in the Church, as they might understand, and have profit by hearing the same; The Service in this Church of England these many years hath been read in Latin to the people, which they understand not; so that they have heard with their ears only, and their heart, spirit, and mind, have not been edified thereby. And furthermore, notwithstanding that the ancient Fathers have divided the Psalms into seven Portions, whereof every one was called a Nocturn: Now of late time a few of them have been daily said, and the rest utterly omitted. Moreover, the number and hardness of the Rules called the Pie, and the manifold changings of the Service, was the cause, that to turn the Book only was so hard and intricate a matter, that many times there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out.
     These inconveniences therefore considered, here is set forth such an Order, whereby the same shall be redressed. And for a readiness in this matter, here is drawn out a Calendar for that purpose, which is plain and easy to be understood; wherein (so much as may be) the reading of holy Scripture is so set forth, that all things shall be done in order, without breaking one piece from another. For this cause be cut off Anthems, Responds, Invitatories, ans such like things as did break the continual course of the reading of Scripture. Yet, because there is no remedy, but that of necessity there must be some Rules; therefore certain Rules are here set forth; which, as they are few in number, so they are plain and easy to be understood. So that here you have an Order for Prayer, and for the reading of the holy Scripture, much agreeable to the mind and purpose of the old Fathers, and a great deal more profitable and commodious, than that which of late was used. It is more profitable, because here are left out many things, whereof some are untrue, some uncertain, some vain and superstitious; and nothing is ordained to be read, but the very pure Word of God, the holy Scriptures, or that which is agreeable to the same; and that in such a Language and Order as is most easy and plain for the understanding both of the Readers and Hearers. It is also more commodious, both for the shortness thereof, and the plainness of the Order, and for that the Rules be few and easy.
     And whereas heretofore there hath been great diversity in saying and singing in Churches within this Realm; some following Salisbury Use, some Hereford Use, and some the Use of Bangor, some of York, some of Lincoln; now from henceforth all the whole Realm shall have but one Use.
     And foreasmuch as nothing can be so plainly set forth, but doubts may arise in the use and practice of the same; to appease all such diversity (if any arise) and for the resolution of all doubts, concerning the manner how to understand, do, and execute, the things contained in this Book; the parties that so doubt, or diversely take any thing, shall alway resort to the Bishop of the Diocese, who by his discretion shall take order for the quieting and appeasing of the same; so that the same order be not contrary to any thing contained in this Book. And if the Bishop of the Diocese be in doubt, then he may send for the resolution thereof to the Archbishop.

     THOUGH it be appointed, That all things shall be read and sung in the Church in the English Tongue, to the end that the Congregation may be thereby edified; yet it is not meant, but that when men say Morning and Evening Prayer privately, they may say the same in any language that they themselves do understand.
     And all Priests and Deacons are to say daily the Morning and Evening Prayer either privately or openly, not being let by sickness, or some other urgent cause.
     And the Curate that ministereth in every Parish-Church or Chapel, being at home, and not being otherwise reasonably hindered, shall say the same in the Parish-Church or Chapel where he ministereth, and shall cause a Bell to be tolled thereunto a convenient time before he begin, that the people may come to hear God’s Word, and to pray with him.

 

The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels

Navigate below.

  1. Advent 1
  2. Advent 2
  3. Advent 3
  4. Advent Ember Days
  5. Advent 4
  6. Christmas Day
  7. Saint Stephen
  8. Saint John the Evangelist
  9. The Innocents
  10. Sunday after Christmas
  11. Octave Day of Christmas
  12. Epiphany
  13. Baptism of our Lord
  14. Epiphany 1
  15. Epiphany 2
  16. Epiphany 3
  17. Epiphany 4
  18. Epiphany 5
  19. Epiphany 6
  20. Septuagesima
  21. Sexagesima
  22. Quinquagesima
  23. Ash Wednesday
  24. Lent 1
  25. Lenten Ember Days
  26. Lent 2
  27. Lent 3
  28. Lent 4
  29. Passion Sunday
  30. Palm Sunday
  31. Monday in Holy Week
  32. Tuesday in Holy Week
  33. Wednesday in Holy Week
  34. Maundy Thursday
  35. Good Friday
  36. Easter Even
  37. Easter Day
  38. Monday in Easter Week
  39. Tuesday in Easter Week
  40. Octave Day of Easter
  41. Easter 2
  42. Easter 3
  43. Easter 4
  44. Easter 5 (Rogation Sunday)
  45. Rogation Days
  46. Ascension Day
  47. Sunday after Ascension
  48. Day of Pentecost
  49. Monday after Pentecost
  50. Tuesday after Pentecost
  51. Ember Days
  52. Trinity Sunday
  53. Trinity 1
  54. Trinity 2
  55. Trinity 3
  56. Trinity 4
  57. Trinity 5
  58. Trinity 6
  59. Trinity 7
  60. Trinity 8
  61. Trinity 9
  62. Trinity 10
  63. Trinity 11
  64. Trinity 12
  65. Trinity 13
  66. Trinity 14
  67. Trinity 15
  68. Trinity 16
  69. Trinity 17
  70. Autumn Ember Days
  71. Trinity 18
  72. Trinity 19
  73. Trinity 20
  74. Trinity 21
  75. Trinity 22
  76. Trinity 23
  77. Trinity 24
  78. Sunday next before Advent
  79. Saint Andrew (Nov. 30)
  80. Saint Thomas (Dec. 21)
  81. Conversion of Saint Paul (Jan. 25)
  82. Presentation of Christ (Feb. 2)
  83. Saint Matthias (Feb. 24)
  84. The Annunciation (Mar. 25)
  85. Saint Mark (April 25)
  86. Saint Philip and Saint James (May 1)
  87. Saint Barnabas (June 11)
  88. Nativity of Saint John the Baptist (June 24)
  89. Saint Peter and Saint Paul (June 29)
  90. Saint Mary Magdalene (July 22)
  91. Saint James (July 25)
  92. The Transfiguration (Aug. 6)
  93. Saint Bartholomew (Aug. 24)
  94. Saint Matthew (Sept. 21)
  95. Saint Michael and All Angels (Sept. 29)
  96. Saint Luke the Evangelist (Oct. 18)
  97. Saint Simon and Saint Jude (Oct. 28)
  98. All Saints’ Day (Nov. 1)
  99. Dedication Festival
  100. Thanksgiving Day
  101. Of the Blessed Virgin Mary
  102. Of a Martyr
  103. Of a Bishop or Archbishop
  104. Of a Missionary
  105. Of a Virgin or Matron
  106. Of a Doctor of the Church, Poet, or Scholar
  107. Of St Joseph of Nazareth
  108. Of the Name of Jesus
  109. Of the Beheading of St John the Baptist
  110. Of Holy Cross Day
  111. At a Service for the Sick
  112. At a Conference or Retreat
  113. At a Synod or Rural Deanery
  114. For a Parochial Mission
  115. At a Memorial Service, including Remembrance Day
  116. At a Dedication Festival or the Consecration of a Church
  117. At a Patronal FestivalAt a Harvest Thanksgiving
  118. On a National Occasion, such as Dominion Day, the Accession Day
  119. At a Wedding
  120. At a Burial
  121. Services for Weekdays

THE CHRISTIAN YEAR
WITH THE COLLECTS.
EPISTLES AND GOSPELS

Part 1. Christmas and Epiphany.

The four weeks of ADVENT.

CHRISTMAS DAY: December 25.

The Christmas Holy-days.

Sundays after Christmas: one or two.

EPIPHANY: January 6.

Sundays after Epiphany: according to the date of Easter.

Part 2. Easter and Pentecost.

Three Sundays before Lent.

Ash Wednesday: beginning the Forty Days of Lent.

The Forty Days of LENT (Sundays not included in the reckoning).

PALM SUNDAY: The sixth Sunday in Lent.

HOLY WEEK: including GOOD FRIDAY.

EASTER DAY: being the first Sunday after the Full Moon which happens upon, or next after, the Spring Equinox, March 21.

Five Sundays after Easter.

ASCENSION DAY: the fortieth day after Easter.

One Sunday after Ascension.

PENTECOST or WHITSUNDAY: being the fiftieth day after Easter.

The Sunday after Pentecost: called TRINITY SUNDAY.

Sundays after Trinity: according to the date of Easter.

Part 3. Holy-days throughout the Year.

See page 260.

Part 4. Supplementary Collects, Epistles, and Gospels.

See page 309.

THE

COLLECTS EPISTLES AND GOSPELS

TO BE USED THROUGHOUT THE YEAR

GENERAL RUBRICS

The Collect appointed for any Sunday or other Feast shall be used at the Evening Service next before, except in the case of Easter Day.

The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel of the Sunday shall serve all the week after, except when other provision is made.

On any weekday for which no special Collect, Epistle, and Gospel is appointed, the Priest may use the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels which are provided for lesser commemorations and weekdays, in accordance with the directions given on pages 309 and following.

The Collect appointed for any Holy-day may be said after the Sunday Collect during the seven days following; and the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel appointed for any Holy-day which has an Octave may be used on any day in the Octave for which no special provision has been made.

A Holy-day falling on a Sunday in Advent or Lent, or on Ash Wednesday or Ascension Day, shall be transferred to the following Tuesday. A Holy-day falling between Palm Sunday and Easter I shall be transferred to the Tuesday after Easter I; one falling between Whitsunday and Trinity Sunday shall be transferred to the Tuesday after Trinity Sunday. If any such Tuesday is not free, the Holy-day shall be transferred to some convenient day following.

But in the case of the Sundays after Christmas, Epiphany, and Trinity, and from Easter II to Easter V: the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel of the Holy-day shall be used, the Collect of the Sunday being said after the Collect of the Holy-day.

In the case of Holy-days falling on Septuagesima, Sexagesima, or Quinquagesima: the Service of the Purification of St Mary the Virgin shall be used on the Sunday, the Collect of the Sunday being said after that of the Feast; but the Conversion of St Paul, and St Matthias, shall be transferred to the following Tuesday.

Any Holy-day falling on a Monday (except the days from Christmas to Epiphany) may be transferred to ‘the following Tuesday.

In reading any Collect ending with the words through Jesus Christ our Lord, the priest may add the ascription who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end.

Advent Sunday is always the nearest Sunday to the Feast of St Andrew, whether before or after.

 

THE FIRST SUNDAY IN ADVENT

BEING THE FOURTH SUNDAY BEFORE CHRISTMAS DAY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, give us grace that we may cast away the works of darkness, and put upon us the armour of light, now in the time of this mortal life, in which thy Son Jesus Christ came to visit us in great humility; that in the last day, when he shall come again in his glorious Majesty, to judge both the quick and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal; through him who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, now and ever. Amen.

This Collect is to be repeated every day after the other Collects in Advent, until Christmas Eve.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 13. 8.

OWE no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth his neighbour hath fulfilled the law. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law. And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep: for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed. The night is far spent, the day is at hand; let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light. Let us walk honestly as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying. But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 21. 1.

WHEN they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. And if any man say aught unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Prophet, saying,

Tell ye the daughter of Sion,
Behold, thy King cometh unto thee,
Meek, and sitting upon an ass,
And a colt the foal of an ass.

And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them; and brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David; Blessed is he that cometh in the Name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. And when he was come into Jerusalem all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? And the multitude said, This is Jesus the Prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple; and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves; and said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.

 

THE SECOND SUNDAY IN ADVENT

THE COLLECT.

BLESSED Lord, who hast caused all holy Scriptures to be written for our learning: Grant that we may in such wise hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them, that by patience and comfort of thy holy Word, we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of everlasting life, which thou hast given us in our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 15. 4.

WHATSOEVER things were written aforetime were written for our learning; that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be like-minded one towards another, according to Christ Jesus: that ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us, to the glory of God. Now I say, that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers; and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written,

For this cause I will give praise to thee among the Gentiles,
And sing unto thy Name.

And again he saith,

Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people.

And again,

Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles,
And laud him, all ye people.

And again, Isaiah saith,

There shall be a root of Jesse,
And he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles,
In him shall the Gentiles hope.

Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, in the power of the Holy Spirit.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 21. 25.

JESUS said unto his disciples, There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring; men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh. And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig-tree, and all the trees; when they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh at hand. So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled: heaven and earth shall pass away; but my words shall not pass away.

 

THE THIRD SUNDAY IN ADVENT

THE COLLECT.

O LORD Jesu Christ, who at thy first coming didst send thy messenger to prepare thy way before thee: Grant that the ministers and stewards of thy mysteries may likewise so prepare and make ready thy way, by turning the hearts of the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, that at thy second coming to judge the world we may be found an acceptable people in thy sight; who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 4. 1.

LET a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God. Moreover, it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful. But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of man’s judgement: yea, I judge not mine own self. I know nothing against myself, yet am I not hereby justified; but he that judgeth me is the Lord. Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts; and then shall every man have praise of God.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 11. 2.

NOW when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples, and said unto him, Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another? Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and show John again those things which ye do hear and see: the blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the Gospel preached to them. And blessed is he whosoever shall not be offended in me. And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken with the wind? But what went ye out for to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings’ houses. But what went ye out for to see? a prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet. For this is he of whom it is written,

Behold, I send my messenger before thy face,
Which shall prepare thy way before thee.

 

THE ADVENT EMBER DAYS

BEING THE WEDNESDAY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY AFTER THE THIRD SUNDAY IN ADVENT

On Ember Days the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, page 210, shall always be used first. The following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for PEACE IN THE WORLD may be used, with the Ember Collect added, at a second Ember Day Service during the week; and are also suitable for Advent and other weekdays for which no special provision has been made in this Book.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY Lord and everlasting Father, who wouldest have the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of thy Son Jesus Christ: Bestow thy blessing, we beseech thee, upon all who labour for peace and righteousness among the nations, that the day may be hastened when war shall be no more, and thou shalt take the nations for thine inheritance; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Micah 4. 1.

AND it shall come to pass that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow unto it. And many nations shall come, and say, Come and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD and to the house of the God of Jacob, and he shall teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths; for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree; and none shall make them afraid; for the mouth of the LORD of hosts hath spoken it.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 1. 26.

AND in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a Virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the Virgin’s name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee. And she was troubled at this saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son, and shalt call his name JESUS.

He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest;
And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David.
And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever;
And of his kingdom there shall be no end.

 

THE FOURTH SUNDAY IN ADVENT

THE COLLECT.

RAISE up, we beseech thee, O Lord, thy power, and come among us, and with great might succour us; that whereas, through our sins and wickedness, we are sore let and hindered in running the race that is set before us, thy bountiful grace and mercy may speedily help and deliver us; who with the Father and the Holy Spirit livest and reignest, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Philippians 4. 4.

REJOICE in the Lord alway, and again I say, Rejoice. Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand. In nothing be anxious: but in every thing, by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.

THE GOSPEL. St John 1. 19.

THIS is the witness of John, when the Jews sent Priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou? And he confessed, and denied not; and he confessed, I am not the Christ. And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elijah? And he said, I am not. Art thou the Prophet? And he answered, No. Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaiah. And they which were sent were of the Pharisees. And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet? John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not: he it is who cometh after me, whose shoe’s latchet I am not worthy to unloose. These things were done in Bethany beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing. The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.

 

THE NATIVITY OF OUR LORD
OR THE BIRTH-DAY OF CHRIST

COMMONLY CALLED

CHRISTMAS DAY

December 25.

These Anthems shall be sung or said instead of Venite at Morning Prayer, and may be used at the Holy Communion except when the latter Service is combined with Morning Prayer.

BEHOLD a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, / and shall call his name Immanuel.
Isaiah 7. 14.

Unto us a child is born, / unto us a son is given.
Isaiah 9. 6.

In this was manifested the love of God toward us, / because that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world that we might live through him.
1 St John 4. 9.

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, / who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ.
Ephesians 1. 3.

GLORY be to the Father, and to the Son, / and to the Holy Ghost;
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, / world without end. Amen.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who hast given us thy only begotten Son to take our nature upon him, and as at this time to be born of a pure Virgin: Grant that we being regenerate, and made thy children by adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the same Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Hebrews 1. 1.

GOD, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. For unto which of the angels said he at any time,

Thou art my Son,
This day have I begotten thee?

And again,

I will be to him a Father,
And he shall be to me a Son?

And again, when he bringeth the first-born into the world, he saith,

And let all the angels of God worship him.

And of the angels he saith

Who maketh his angels spirits,
And his ministers a flame of fire.

But unto the Son he saith,

Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever;
A sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom:
Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity;
Therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee
With the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

And again he saith,

Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth;
And the heavens are the works of thine hands:
They shall perish, but thou remainest;
And they all shall wax old as doth a garment;
And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up,
And they shall be changed;
But thou art the same,
And thy years shall not fail.

THE GOSPEL. St John 1. 1.

IN the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness overcame it not. There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the light, that all men through him might believe. He was not that light, but was sent to bear witness of that light. That was the true light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his Name: which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father) full of grace and truth.

The Collect of Christmas Day shall be said continually unto the Eve of the Epiphany. The following additional Collect may also be used during these twelve days.

O GOD, who makest us glad with the yearly remembrance of the birth of thy only Son Jesus Christ: Grant that as we joyfully receive him as our Redeemer, we may with sure confidence behold him when he shall come again to be our Judge; who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, now and ever. Amen.

If there be two or more celebrations of the Holy Communion in any Church on Christmas Day, the following Epistle and Gospel may be used at one of them.

THE EPISTLE. Titus 2. 11.

THE grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. These things speak; and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 2. 1.

NOW it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem (because he was of the house and lineage of David;) to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. And so it was, that while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,

Glory to God in the highest,
And on earth peace, good will toward men.

 

SAINT STEPHEN THE MARTYR

December 26.

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, O Lord, that in all our sufferings here upon earth, for the testimony of thy truth, we may stedfastly look up to heaven, and by faith behold the glory that shall be revealed; and, being filled with the Holy Spirit, may learn to love and bless our persecutors, by the example of thy first Martyr Saint Stephen, who prayed for his murderers to thee, O blessed Jesus, who standest at the right hand of God to succour all those that suffer for thee, our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 7. 55.

STEPHEN, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, and said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God. Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and ran upon him with one accord, and cast him out of the city, and stoned him: and the witnesses laid down their clothes at a young man’s feet, whose name was Saul. And they stoned Stephen calling upon God and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he fell asleep.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 23. 34.

JESUS spake unto the Scribes and Pharisees, saying, Behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes; and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city; that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zachariah the son of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the Name of the Lord.

 

SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST

December 27.

THE COLLECT.

MERCIFUL Lord, we beseech thee to cast thy bright beams of light upon thy Church, that it being enlightened by the doctrine of thy blessed Apostle and Evangelist Saint John may so walk in the light of thy truth, that it may at length attain to the light of everlasting life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St John 1. 1.

THAT which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled of the Word of life; (for the life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us;) That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ. And these things write we unto you, that your joy may be full. This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, That God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.

THE GOSPEL. St John 21. 19.

JESUS said unto Peter, Follow me. Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; which also leaned on his breast at supper, and said, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee? Peter seeing him saith to Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do? Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou me. Then went this saying abroad among the brethren, That that disciple should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? This is the disciple which beareth witness of these things, and wrote these things, and we know that his witness is true. And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which if they should be written every one, I suppose, that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written.

 

THE INNOCENTS

December 28.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who out of the mouths of babes and sucklings hast ordained strength, and madest infants to glorify thee by their deaths: Mortify and kill all vices in us, and so strengthen us by thy grace, that by the innocency of our lives, and constancy of our faith, even unto death, we may glorify thy holy Name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Revelation 14. 1.

I SAW, and behold the Lamb standing on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred and forty and four thousand, having his Name, and the Name of his Father, written on their foreheads. And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and the voice which I heard was as the voice of harpers harping upon their harps; and they sing as it were a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures, and the elders; and no man could learn that song, but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth. These are they which were not defiled with women, for they are virgins: these are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth: these were redeemed from among men, being the first-fruits unto God, and to the Lamb. And in their mouth was found no guile; for they are without fault before the throne of God.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 2. 13.

THE angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child, and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word; for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. And he arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my Son. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth; and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying,

In Ramah was there a voice heard,
Lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her children,
And would not be comforted, because they are not.

If there be any further weekdays, the Service of Christmas Day shall be used.

 

THE SUNDAY AFTER CHRISTMAS DAY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who hast given us thy only begotten Son to take our nature upon him, and as at this time to be born of a pure Virgin: Grant that we being regenerate, and made thy children by adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the same Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Galatians 4. 1.

NOW I say, that the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all; but is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed of the father. Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world: but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. And because Ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 1. 18.

THE birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily. But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost: and she shall bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS; for he shall save his people from their sins. (Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,

Behold, a Virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a Son,
And they shall call his name Emmanuel,

which being interpreted is, God with us.) Then Joseph, being raised from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife; and knew her not till she had brought forth her first-born son: and he called his name JESUS.

 

THE OCTAVE DAY OF CHRISTMAS

AND THE CIRCUMCISION OF CHRIST BEING NEW YEAR’S DAY

January 1.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who hast given us thy only begotten Son to take our nature upon him, and as at this time to be born of a pure Virgin: Grant that we being regenerate, and made thy children by adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the same Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

The following additional Collects may be used for the Circumcision and for New Year’s Day.

Of the Circumcision.

ALMIGHTY God, who madest thy blessed Son to be circumcised, and obedient to the law for man: Grant us the true circumcision of the Spirit; that, our hearts, and all our members, being mortified from all worldly and carnal lusts, we may in all things obey thy blessed will; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

For the New Year.

O IMMORTAL Lord God, who inhabitest eternity, and hast brought thy servants to the beginning of another year: Pardon, we humbly beseech thee, our transgressions in the past, bless to us this New Year, and graciously abide with us all the days of our life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Isaiah 9. 2.

THE people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined. Thou hast multiplied the nation, thou hast increased their joy: they joy before thee according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil. For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian. For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgement and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 2. 15.

AND it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. And they came with haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them. And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called JESUS, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.

This Service shall be used until the Epiphany.

 

THE EPIPHANY OF OUR LORD

OR THE MANIFESTATION OF CHRIST TO THE GENTILES

January 6.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who by the leading of a star didst manifest thy only-begotten Son to the Gentiles: Mercifully grant, that we, who know thee now by faith, may be led onward through this earthly life, until we see the vision of thy heavenly glory; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ, who with thee and the Holy Ghost liveth and reigneth, one God, world without end. Amen.

This Collect is to be repeated every day throughout the Octave.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 3. 1.

FOR this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles; if ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God, which is given unto me for your sakes: How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery (as I wrote afore in few words, whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy Apostles and Prophets by the Spirit; That the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ, by the Gospel: whereof I was made a minister, according to the gift of the grace of God given unto me by the effectual working of his power. Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ; and to make all men see what is the dispensation of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things: to the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be made known, through the Church, the manifold wisdom of God, according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord: In whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 2. 1.

WHEN Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea, in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them, where the Christ was to be born. And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,

And thou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
Art not the least among the princes of Judah:
For out of thee shall come a Governor
That shall rule my people Israel.

Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, inquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go, and search diligently for the young child, and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also. When they had heard the king, they departed; and lo, the star which they saw in the east went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.

The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel of the Epiphany shall serve for all weekdays in the Octave, except when other provision has been made.

The following Collect, Lesson, and Gospel may be used on any weekday in the Octave, or at a second service on the Epiphany.

 

THE BAPTISM OF OUR LORD

THE COLLECT.

O HEAVENLY Father, whose blessed Son Jesus Christ did take our nature upon him, and was baptized for our sakes in the river Jordan: Mercifully grant that we being regenerate, and made thy children by adoption and grace, may also be partakers of thy Holy Spirit; through him whom thou didst send to be our Saviour and Redeemer, even the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Isaiah 42. 1.

BEHOLD my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles. He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street. A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgement unto truth. He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgement in the earth: and the isles shall wait for his law. Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein: I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house. I am the LORD: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 1. 1.

THE beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God; as it is written in the prophets,

Behold, I send my messenger before thy face,
Which shall prepare thy way before thee.
The voice of one crying in the wilderness,
Prepare ye the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight.

John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins. And John was clothed with camel’s hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey; and preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose. I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit. And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan. And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him: and there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

The following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel may be used throughout the Epiphany season on weekdays, for THE MISSIONARY WORK OF THE CHURCH OVERSEAS.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who desirest not the death of sinners, but rather that they may turn unto thee and live: Deliver the nations of the world from superstition and unbelief, and gather them all into thy holy Church, to the praise and glory of thy Name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 10. 8.

WHAT saith the Scripture?

Near is the word, in thy mouth and in thy heart, even the word which we proclaim. If thou shalt confess with thy mouth that Jesus is Lord, and shalt believe in thy heart that God raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved; for with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. For the Scripture saith,

Whosoever believeth on him shall not be put to shame.

For there is no difference between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord of all is rich unto all that call upon him; for

Whosoever shall call upon the Name of the Lord shall be saved.

How then shall they call upon him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher? And how shall they preach unless they be sent? As it is written,

How beautiful are the feet of them that bring glad tidings of good things!

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 28. 16.

THEN the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into the mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him they worshipped him: but some doubted. And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, All authority is given unto me in heaven and on earth. Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and lo, I am with you all the days, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

 

THE FIRST SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, we beseech thee mercifully to receive the prayers of thy people which call upon thee; and grant that they may both perceive and know what things they ought to do, and also may have grace and power faithfully to fulfil the same; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 12. 1.

I BESEECH you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service. And be not conformed to this world; but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God. For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith. For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office; so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 2. 41.

NOW his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem, after the custom of the feast. And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it. But they, supposing him to have been in the company, went a day’s journey, and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him. And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions. And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers. And when they saw him., they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father’s business? And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom, and stature, and in favour with God and man.

 

THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who dost govern all things in heaven and earth: Mercifully hear the supplications of thy people, and grant us thy peace all the days of our life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 12. 6.

HAVING then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith; or ministry, let us wait on our ministering; or he that teacheth, on teaching; or he that exhorteth, on exhortation: he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity; he that ruleth, with diligence; he that showeth mercy, with cheerfulness. Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil, cleave to that which is good. Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love, in honour preferring one another: not slothful in business; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord; rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation; continuing instant in prayer; distributing to the necessity of saints; given to hospitality. Bless them which persecute you; bless, and curse not. Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep. Be of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate.

THE GOSPEL. St John 2. 1.

AND the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: and Jesus also was bidden, and his disciples, to the wedding. And when the wine failed, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. Jesus saith unto her, O woman, what is that to thee and to me? mine hour is not yet come. His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. And there were set there six water-pots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. Jesus saith unto them, Fill the water-pots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was, (though the servants which drew the water knew,) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, and saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now. This beginning of signs did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory, and his disciples believed on him.

 

THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, mercifully look upon our infirmities, and in all our dangers and necessities stretch forth thy right hand to help and defend us; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 12.16.

BE not wise in your own conceits. Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men. Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath; for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord. Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 8. 1.

WHEN Jesus was come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed him. And behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will; be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man, but go thy way, show thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him a centurion beseeching him, and saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. And Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal him. The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof; but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed. For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say unto this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no not in Israel. And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way, and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And his servant was healed in the self-same hour.

 

THE FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who knowest us to be set in the midst of so many and great dangers, that by reason of the frailty of our nature we cannot always stand upright: Grant to us such strength and protection, as may support us in all dangers, and carry us through all temptations; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 13. 1.

LET every man be subject unto the higher powers; for there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves judgement. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: for he is a minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is a minister of God, an avenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. And for this cause too ye pay taxes; for they are God’s ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 4. 35.

AND the same day, when the even was come, Jesus saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side. And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships. And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full. And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish? And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm. And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith? And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?

 

THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, we beseech thee to keep thy Church and household continually in thy true religion; that they who do lean only upon the hope of thy heavenly grace may evermore be defended by thy mighty power; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Colossians 3. 12.

PUT on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, mercy and compassion, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, long-suffering; forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man have a complaint against any; even as the Lord forgave you, so also do ye. And above all these things put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness. And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to God. And whatsoever ye do, in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 13. 24.

ANOTHER parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field. But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. So the servants of the householder came, and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.

 

THE SIXTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, whose blessed Son was manifested that he might destroy the works of the devil, and make us the sons of God, and heirs of eternal life: Grant us, we beseech thee, that, having this hope, we may purify ourselves, even as he is pure; that, when he shall appear again with power and great glory, we may be made like unto him in his eternal and glorious kingdom; where with thee, O Father, and thee, O Holy Ghost, he liveth and reigneth, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St John 3. 1.

BEHOLD, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God; and so we are. Therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure. Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin. Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not: whosoever sinneth hath not seen him, neither known him. Little children, let no man deceive you: he that doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is righteous. He that committeth sin is of the devil: for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 24. 23.

THEN if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is the Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that (if it were possible) they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. Wherefore, if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: Behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not. For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be. For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together. Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

 

THE SUNDAY CALLED SEPTUAGESIMA

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, we beseech thee favourably to hear the prayers of thy people; that we, who are justly punished for our offences, may be mercifully delivered by thy goodness, for the glory of thy Name; through Jesus Christ our Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 9. 24.

KNOW ye not that they which run in a race run all, but one receiveth the prize? So run that ye may obtain. And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things: now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; so fight I, not as one that beateth the air: but I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection, lest that by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 20. 1.

AND Jesus spake unto them another parable, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard. And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace, and said unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise. And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive. So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny. And when they had received it, they murmured against the good-man of the house, saying, These last have worked but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day. But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong; didst not thou agree with me for a penny? Take that thine is, and go thy way; I will give unto this last even as unto thee. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.

 

THE SUNDAY CALLED SEXAGESIMA

THE COLLECT.

O LORD God, who seest that we put not our trust in any thing that we do: Mercifully grant that by thy power we may be defended against all adversity; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Corinthians 11. 21.

WHEREINSOEVER any is bold, (I speak foolishly,) I am bold also. Are they Hebrews? so am I. Are they Israelites? so am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? so am I. Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool,) I am more: in labours more abundant; in stripes above measure; in prisons more frequent; in deaths oft. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one; thrice was I beaten with rods; once was I stoned; thrice I suffered shipwreck; a night and a day I have been in the deep; in journeyings often; in perils of waters; in perils of robbers; in perils by mine own countrymen; in perils by the heathen; in perils in the city; in perils in the wilderness; in perils in the sea; in perils among false brethren; in weariness and painfulness; in watchings often; in hunger and thirst; in fastings often; in cold and nakedness; besides those things that are without, that which cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches. Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is offended, and I burn not? If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine infirmities. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I lie not.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 8. 4.

WHEN much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spake by a parable: A sower went out to sow his seed; and as he sowed, some fell by the way-side, and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it. And some fell upon a rock, and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture. And some fell among thorns, and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it. And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit an hundred-fold. And when he had said these things, he cried, He that hath cars to hear, let him hear. And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be? And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand. Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God. Those by the way-side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe, and be saved. They on the rock are they which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away. And that which fell among thorns are they which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares, and riches, and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection. But that on the good ground are they which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.

 

THE SUNDAY CALLED QUINQUAGESIMA

BEING THE FIFTIETH DAY BEFORE EASTER

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, who hast taught us that all our doings without charity are nothing worth: Send thy Holy Spirit, and pour into our hearts that most excellent gift of charity, the very bond of peace and of all virtues, without which whosoever liveth is counted dead before thee. Grant this for thine only Son Jesus Christ’s sake. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 13. 1.

THOUGH I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil, rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see in a glass darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three: but the greatest of these is charity.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 18. 31.

THEN Jesus took unto him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished. For he shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on: and they shall scourge him, and put him to death; and the third day he shall rise again. And they understood none of these things: and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken. And it came to pass, that as he was come nigh unto Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the way-side begging: and hearing the multitude pass by, he asked what it meant. And they told him, that Jesus of Nazareth passeth by. And he cried, saying, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me. And they which went before rebuked him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried so much the more, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me. And Jesus stood, and commanded him to be brought unto him: and when he was come near, he asked him, saying, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? And he said, Lord, that I may receive my sight. And Jesus said unto him, Receive thy sight; thy faith hath saved thee. And immediately he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God: and all the people, when they saw it, gave praise unto God.

This Collect, Epistle, and Gospel shall be used every day in the week following, except upon Ash Wednesday or any Holy-day for which other provision is made.

 

THE FIRST DAY OF LENT

COMMONLY CALLED

ASH WEDNESDAY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who hatest nothing that thou hast made, and dost forgive the sins of all them that are penitent: Create and make in us new and contrite hearts, that we worthily lamenting our sins, and acknowledging our wretchedness, may obtain of thee, the God of all mercy, perfect remission and forgiveness; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

This Collect is to be read every day in Lent after the Collect appointed for the day until Holy Week.

THE EPISTLE. St James 4. 6.

GOD bestoweth abundant grace; wherefore the Scripture saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble. Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye double-minded. Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to heaviness. Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he shall lift you up. Speak not evil one of another, brethren.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 6. 16.

AND Jesus spake unto his disciples, saying, When ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face, that thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall recompense thee. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

 

THE FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, who for our sake didst fast forty days and forty nights: Give us grace to use such abstinence, that, our flesh being subdued to the Spirit, we may ever obey thy godly motions in righteousness and true holiness, to thy honour and glory; who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Corinthians 6. 1.

WE then, as workers together with him, beseech you also, that ye receive not the grace of God in vain; (for he saith,

I have heard thee in a time accepted,
And in the day of salvation have I succoured thee:

behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation;) giving no offence in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed; but in all things approving ourselves as the ministers of God, in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, in stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings; by pureness, by knowledge, by long-suffering, by kindness, by the Holy Spirit, by love unfeigned, by the word of truth, by the power of God; by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left; by honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report; as deceivers, and yet true; as unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and behold, we live; as chastened, and not killed; as sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 4. 1.

THEN was Jesus led up by the Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted by the devil. And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an-hungred. And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. But he answered and said, It is written,

Man shall not live by bread alone,
But by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on the pinnacle of the temple, and saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down; for it is written,

He shall give his angels charge concerning thee,
And in their hands they shall bear thee up,
Lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

Jesus said unto him, It is written again,

Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.

Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; and saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan; for it is written,

Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God,
And him only shalt thou serve.

Then the devil leaveth him, and behold, angels came and ministered unto him.

 

THE LENTEN EMBER DAYS

BEING THE WEDNESDAY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY AFTER THE FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT

On Ember Days the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, page 210, shall always be used first. The following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for MISSIONARY WORK IN OUR OWN COUNTRY may be used, with the Ember Collect added, at a second Ember Day Service during the week; and are also suitable for Lenten and other weekdays for which no special provision has been made in this Book.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who hast made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on the face of the earth, and didst send thy blessed Son Jesus Christ to preach peace to them that are afar off and to them that are nigh: Grant that all peoples of the world may feel after thee and find thee; and hasten, O Lord, the fulfilment of thy promise to pour out thy Spirit upon all flesh; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Thessalonians 1. 1.

PAUL and Silvanus and Timothy unto the Church of the Thessalonians, which is in God the Father, and in the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace be unto You, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in our prayers; remembering without ceasing your work of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the sight of God and our Father; knowing, brethren beloved, your election by God. For our Gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and in much assurance; as ye know what manner of men we were among you for your sake. And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit: so that ye were examples to all that believe in Macedonia and Achaia. For from you sounded out the word of the Lord not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith towards God is spread abroad.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 1. 32.

AT even when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils. And all the city was gathered together at the door. And he healed many that were sick of manifold diseases, and cast out devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him. And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed. And Simon Peter and they that were with him followed after him. And when they had found him, they said unto him, All men are seeking for thee. And he said unto them, Let us go into the neighbouring towns, that I may preach there also; for therefore came I forth. And he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils.

 

THE SECOND SUNDAY IN LENT

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who seest that we have no power of ourselves to help ourselves: Keep us both outwardly in our bodies, and inwardly in our souls; that we may be defended from all adversities which may happen to the body, and from all evil thoughts which may assault and hurt the soul; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Thessalonians 4. 1.

WE beseech you, brethren, and exhort you by the Lord Jesus, that as ye have received of us how ye ought to walk, and to please God, so ye would abound more and more. For ye know what charges we gave you by the Lord Jesus. For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication; that every one of you should know how to keep his own body in holiness and honour; not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles who know not God; that no man transgress, and wrong his brother in this matter; because the Lord is the avenger of all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified. For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 15. 21.

JESUS went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. And behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou Son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us. But he answered and said, I am not sent, but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Then came she and knelt before him, saying, Lord, help me. But he answered and said, It is not right to take the children’s bread, and to cast it to dogs. And she said, Truth, Lord; yet the little dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table. Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour.

 

THE THIRD SUNDAY IN LENT

THE COLLECT.

WE beseech thee, Almighty God, look upon the hearty desires of thy humble servants and stretch forth the right hand of thy Majesty to be our defence against all our enemies; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 5. 1.

BE ye therefore followers of God, as dear children; and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour. But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named amongst you, as becometh saints; neither filthiness, nor foolishtalking, nor jesting, which are not befitting; but rather giving of thanks: for this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ, and of God. Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. Be not ye therefore partakers with them: for ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light; (for the fruit of the light is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth;) proving what is acceptable unto the Lord. And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them: for it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret. But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light. Therefore it is said,

Awake, thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead,
And Christ shall give thee light.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 11. 14.

JESUS was casting out a devil, and it was dumb; and it came to pass, when the devil was gone out, the dumb spake; and the people wondered. But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebul, the prince of the devils; and others, tempting him, sought of him a sign from heaven. But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and a house divided against itself falleth; if Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out devils through Beelzebul; and if I cast out devils by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your judges. But if I cast out devils by the finger of God, no doubt the kingdom of God hath come upon you. When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace; but when a stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein he trusted, and divideth the spoils. He that is not with me is against me: and he that gathereth not with me scattereth. When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out; and when he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished; then goeth he and taketh to him seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in, and dwell there; and the last state of that man is worse than the first.

 

THE FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, we beseech thee, Almighty God, that we, who for our evil deeds do worthily deserve to be punished, by the comfort of thy grace may mercifully be relieved; through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Galatians 4. 26.

JERUSALEM which is above is free; which is the mother of us all. For it is written,

Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not;
Break forth and cry, thou that travailest not:
For the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.

Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit; even so it is now. Nevertheless, what saith the Scripture? Cast out the bond-woman and her son; for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free-woman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free. Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free.

THE GOSPEL. St John 6. 5.

WHEN Jesus then lift up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread that these may eat? (And this he said to prove him; for he himself knew what he would do.) Philip answered him, Two hundred penny-worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may take a little. One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, saith unto him, There is a lad here, which hath five barley-loaves, and two small fishes; but what are they among so many? And Jesus said, Make the men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand. And Jesus took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of the fishes, as much as they would. When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost. Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley-loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten. Then those men, when they had seen the sign that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that Prophet that should come into the world.

 

THE FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT

COMMONLY CALLED

PASSION SUNDAY

THE COLLECT.

WE beseech thee, Almighty God, mercifully to look upon thy people; that by thy great goodness they may be governed and preserved evermore, both in body and soul; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Hebrews 9. 11.

CHRIST being come an High Priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands; that is to say, not of this building; neither by the blood of goats and calves; but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling those who are unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh; how much more shall the blood of Christ, who, through the eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot to God, purify your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? And for this cause he is the Mediator of the new covenant, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 20. 20.

THEN came to him the mother of Zebedee’s children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him. And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom. But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able. And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father. And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren. But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great, exercise authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister; and whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.

 

THE SUNDAY NEXT BEFORE EASTER

COMMONLY CALLED

PALM SUNDAY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who, of thy tender love towards mankind, hast sent thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, to take upon him our flesh, and to suffer death upon the cross, that all mankind should follow the example of his great humility: Mercifully grant, that we may both follow the example of his patience, and also be made partakers of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Philippians 2. 5.

LET this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: who, being in the form of God, counted it not a prize to be equal to God, but emptied himself, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him the name which is above every name; that at the Name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess JESUS CHRIST IS LORD, to the glory of God the Father.

THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST MATTHEW

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 27. 1.

WHEN the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus, to put him to death. And when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. Then Judas who had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that. And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter’s field, to bury strangers in. Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day. (Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value, and gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord appointed me.)

And Jesus stood before the governor; and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest. And when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. Then saith Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? And he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly. Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would. And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called the Christ? For he knew that for envy they had delivered him. And while he was sitting on the judgement-seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. The governor answered and said unto them, Which of the two will ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called the Christ? They all say unto him, Let him be crucified. And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified. When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that the tumult increased, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it. Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus he delivered him to be crucified.

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers. And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe. And when they had platted a crown of thorns they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews. And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head. And after that they had mocked him they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him.

And as they came out they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name; him they compelled to bear his cross. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull, they gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink. And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots. And sitting down they watched him there; and set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Then were there two thieves crucified with him; one on the right hand, and another on the left. And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, and saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself: if thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others, himself he cannot save: if he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God. The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.

Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elijah. And straightway one of them ran, and took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elijah will come to save him. Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, gave up the spirit. And behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. Now when the centurion and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.

 

MONDAY IN HOLY WEEK

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who, of thy tender love towards mankind, hast sent thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, to take upon him our flesh, and to suffer death upon the cross, that all mankind should follow the example of his great humility: Mercifully grant, that we may both follow the example of his patience, and also be made partakers of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Isaiah 63. 7.

I WILL mention the loving-kindnesses of the LORD, and the praises of the LORD, according to all that the LORD hath bestowed on us, and the great goodness towards the house of Israel, which he hath bestowed on them, according to his mercies, and according to the multitude of his loving-kindnesses. For he said, Surely they are my people, children that will not lie: so he was their Saviour. In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love, and in his pity, he redeemed them, and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old.

THE BEGINNING OF THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST MARK

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 14. 1.

AFTER two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death. But they said, Not on the feast-day, lest there be an uproar of the people.

And being in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard, very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head. And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made? for it might have been sold for more than three hundred pieces of silver, and have been given to the poor: and they murmured against her. And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me: for ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good; but me ye have not always. She hath done what she could; she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying. Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.

And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests to betray him unto them. And when they heard it they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.

And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare, that thou mayest eat the passover? And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him: and wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the good-man of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? And he will show You a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us. And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.

And in the evening he cometh with the twelve. And as they sat, and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me. And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I? And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve that dippeth with me in the dish. The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed: good were it for that man if he had never been born. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body. And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them: and they all drank of it. And he said unto them, This is my blood of the covenant, which is shed for many. Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God. And when they had sung an hymn they went out into the mount of Olives.

And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered. But, after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee. But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I. And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all. And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray. And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy, and saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death; tarry ye here, and watch. And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me; nevertheless, not what I will, but what thou wilt. And he cometh and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour? Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation: the spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak. And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words. And when he returned he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him. And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand.

And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely. And as soon as he was come he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him. And they laid their hands on him, and took him. And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. And Jesus answered, and said unto them, Are ye come out as against a thief, with swords and with staves, to take me? I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the Scriptures must be fulfilled. And they all forsook him, and fled. And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him: and he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.

And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes. And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest; and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire. And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none. For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together. And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying, We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands. But neither so did their witness agree together. And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, I am; and ye shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses? ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be worthy of death. And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.

And as Peter was beneath in the palace there cometh one of the maids of the high priest; and when she saw Peter warming himself she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth. But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch. And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them. And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them; for thou art a Galilaean. But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak. And immediately the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.

 

TUESDAY IN HOLY WEEK

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who, of thy tender love towards mankind, hast sent thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, to take upon him our flesh, and to suffer death upon the cross, that all mankind should follow the example of his great humility: Mercifully grant, that we may both follow the example of his patience, and also be made partakers of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Isaiah 50. 5.

THE Lord GOD hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious, neither turned away back. I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. For the Lord GOD will help me, therefore shall I not be confounded: therefore have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be ashamed. He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? Let us stand together; who is mine adversary? let him come near to me. Behold, the Lord GOD will help me; who is he that shall condemn me?

THE CONTINUATION OF THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST MARK

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 15. 1.

AND straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate. And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it. And the chief priests accused him of many things. And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee. But Jesus yet answered nothing: so that Pilate marvelled. Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired. And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him,, who had committed murder in the insurrection. And the multitude, crying aloud, began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them. But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews? For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy. But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them. And Pilate answered, and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews? And they cried out again, Crucify him. Then Pilate said unto them,, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him. And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.

And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band. And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head: and began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews. And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him. And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.

And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh; but he received it not. And when they had crucified him they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS. And with him they crucify two thieves, the one on his right hand, and the other on his left. And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself, and come down from the cross. Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves, with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.

And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elijah. And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down. And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit. And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the spirit, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.

 

WEDNESDAY IN HOLY WEEK

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who, of thy tender love towards mankind, hast sent thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, to take upon him our flesh, and to suffer death upon the cross, that all mankind should follow the example of his great humility: Mercifully grant, that we may both follow the example of his patience, and also be made partakers of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Hebrews 9. 15.

WHEREFORE Christ is the Mediator of the new covenant, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions which were under the first covenant, they which are called might receive the promise of an eternal inheritance. For where a covenant or testament is, there must also, of necessity, be the death of the testator; for a testament is of force after men are dead; it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth. And therefore the first testament also was dedicated with blood; for when Moses had spoken every commandment to all the people, according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book and all the people, saying, This is the blood of the covenant or testament, which God hath commanded you. Moreover, he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry. And according to the law, almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. It was necessary therefore that these symbols of heavenly things should be purified thus; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices; for Christ hath not entered into holy places made with hands, which are only figures of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us. Nor need he offer himself many times like the high priest who entereth into the holy place every year with blood that is not his own: for then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world; but now, once for all, at the end of time, he hath appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgement: so Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time apart from sin unto salvation.

THE BEGINNING OF THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST LUKE

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 22. 1.

NOW the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover. And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people. Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them. And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money. And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.

Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed. And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat. And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare? And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in. And ye shall say unto the good-man of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? And he shall show you a large upper room furnished; there make ready. And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.

And when the hour was come he sat down, and the twelve Apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: for I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves. For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body, which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is shed for you. But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. And truly the Son of man goeth as it was determined; but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed. And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called Benefactors. But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve. For which is the greater, he that sitteth at the table, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at the table? but I am among you as he that serveth. Ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations. And I make a covenant with you, as my Father hath made a covenant with me, even a kingdom; that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: but I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not; and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee both into prison and to death. And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me. And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one. For I say unto you, That this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end. And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough. And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives, and his disciples also followed him.

And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray, that ye enter not into temptation. And he was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast, and kneeled down and prayed, saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done. And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him. And being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, and said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. And while he yet spake, behold, a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? When they who were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him. Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders who were come to him, Be ye come out as against a thief, with swords and staves? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.

Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest’s house: and Peter followed afar off. And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. But a certain maid beheld him, as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him. And he denied it, saying, Woman, I know him not. And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. And about the space of one hour after, another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him; for he is a Galilaean. And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter; and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.

And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him. And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee? And many other things blasphemously spake they against him. And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying, Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe: and if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go. Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God. Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am. And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.

 

THURSDAY IN HOLY WEEK

COMMONLY CALLED

MAUNDY THURSDAY

THE COLLECTS.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who, of thy tender love towards mankind, hast sent thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, to take upon him our flesh, and to suffer death upon the cross, that all mankind should follow the example of his great humility: Mercifully grant, that we may both follow the example of his patience, and also he made partakers of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

O GOD, who in a wonderful sacrament hast left unto us a memorial of thy passion: Grant us so to reverence the holy mysteries of thy Body and Blood, that we may ever know within ourselves the fruit of thy redemption; who livest and reignest with the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 11. 23.

BRETHREN, I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread; and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord’s death till he come. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh condemnation to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body.

THE CONTINUATION OF THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST LUKE

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 23. 1.

THE whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying, That he himself is Christ a King. And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him, and said, Thou sayest it. Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man. And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilaean. And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself was also at Jerusalem at that time.

And when Herod saw Jesus he was exceeding glad; for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him. Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing. And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him. And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together; for before they were at enmity between themselves.

And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him. Neither hath Herod: for he sent him back to us. Behold, nothing worthy of death hath been done by him. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. And they cried out all together, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas: (who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.) Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them. But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go. And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified; and their voices prevailed. And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required. And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.

And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus. And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him. But Jesus, turning unto them, said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the breasts which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry? And there were also two others, malefactors, led with him to be put to death.

And when they were come to the place which is called Calvary, there they crucified him; and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots. And the people stood beholding; and the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be the Christ, the chosen one of God. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, and saying, If thou be the King of the Jews, save thyself. And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek. and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. And one of the malefactors, which were hanged, railed on him, saying, If thou be the Christ, save thyself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said, Jesus, remember me when thou comest in thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise. And it was about the sixth hour: and there was a darkness over all the land until the ninth hour, the sun’s light failing; and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the spirit. Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man. And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things that were done, smote their breasts and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.

At a second service, instead of the Gospel of the day, there may be read that appointed for a Harvest Thanksgiving, page 621.

 

GOOD FRIDAY

These Anthems shall be sung or said instead of Venite at Morning Prayer.

BEHOLD the Lamb of God, / which taketh away the sin of the world.
St John 1. 29.

He was wounded for our transgressions, / he was bruised for our iniquities:
The chastisement of our peace was upon him / and with his stripes we are healed.
Isaiah 53. 5.

Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, / and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.
1 St John 4. 10.

Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, / and honour, and glory, and blessing.
Revelation 5. 12.

THE COLLECTS.

ALMIGHTY God, we beseech thee graciously to behold this thy family, for which our Lord Jesus Christ was contented to be betrayed, and given up into the hands of wicked men, and to suffer death upon the cross; who now liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, by whose Spirit the whole body of the Church is governed and sanctified: Receive our supplications and prayers, which we offer before thee for all estates of men in thy holy Church, that every member of the same, in his vocation and ministry, may truly and godly serve thee; through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Hebrews 10. 1.

THE law of Moses, having as it were a shadow of good things which were to come, but not the very image of those things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered continually, year by year, make the comers thereunto perfect; for then would they not have ceased to be offered? since the worshippers, once they had been purified, should have had no more consciousness of sins. But in those sacrifices a remembrance of sins is made over again every year. For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. Wherefore, when he cometh into the world, he saith,

Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not,
But a body hast thou prepared me:
In burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure:
Then said I, Lo, I come
(In the volume of the book it is written of me)
To do thy will, O God.

Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt-offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein, (which are offered according to the law;) then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God: he taketh away the first, that he may establish the second. By the which will we are sanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest standeth daily in his ministry offering many times those same sacrifices which can never take away sins; but this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down at the right hand of God, waiting from henceforth till his enemies be made his footstool. For by one single offering he hath perfected for ever those who are sanctified; whereof the Holy Spirit also is a witness to us. For after saying,

This is the covenant that I will make with them
After those days, saith the Lord,
I will put my laws into their hearts,
And in their minds will I write them; then saith he,
And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more.

Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin. Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh; and having an High Priest over the house of God: let us draw near with a true heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful that promised;) and let us consider one another to provoke unto love, and to good works; not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.

THE PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST ACCORDING TO ST JOHN

THE GOSPEL. St John 18. 33.

THEN Pilate entered into the judgement-hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done? Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from hence. Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king: to this end was I born and came into the world, that I should witness to the truth: every one that is of the truth heareth my voice. Pilate saith unto him, What is truth?

And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all; but ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews? Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, and came unto him, and said, Hail, King of the Jews: and they smote him with their hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man! When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid; and went again into the judgement-hall, and saith into Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee? Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin. And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgement-seat, in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar. Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified: and they took Jesus, and led him away.

And he, bearing his cross, went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha: where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross; and the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am the King of the Jews. Pilate answered, What I have written, I have written. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose It shall be: that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which saith,

They parted my raiment among them,
And for my vesture they did cast lots.

These things therefore the soldiers did. Now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son. Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother. And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home. After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. The soldiers, therefore, came and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs. But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water. And he that saw it bore witness, and his witness is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. For these things were done that the Scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. And again another Scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

 

EASTER EVEN

OR HOLY SATURDAY

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, O Lord, that as we are baptized into the death of thy blessed Son our Saviour Jesus Christ, so by continual mortifying our corrupt affections we may be buried with him; and that, through the grave, and gate of death, we may pass to our joyful resurrection; for his merits, who died, and was buried, and rose again for us, thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 3. 17.

IT is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well-doing, than for evil-doing. For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; which sometime were disobedient, when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared; wherein few, that is, eight souls, were saved by water. The like figure whereunto, even baptism, doth also now save us, (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience towards God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God, angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 27. 57.

WHEN the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple. He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre. Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again. Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first. Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch; go your way, make it as sure as you can. So they went and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.

 

EASTER DAY

These Anthems shall be sung or said instead of Venite at Morning Prayer, and may be used at the Holy Communion except when the latter Service is combined with Morning Prayer.

CHRIST our passover is sacrificed for us: therefore let us keep the feast;
Not with the old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness; / but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
1 Corinthians 5. 7.

Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; / death hath no more dominion over him.
For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.
Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, / but alive unto God, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Romans 6. 9.

Christ is risen from the dead, / and become the first-fruits of them that slept.
For since by man came death, / by man came also the resurrection of the dead.
For as in Adam all die, / even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
1 Corinthians 15. 20.

GLORY be to the Father, and to the Son, / and to the Holy Ghost;
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, / world without end. Amen.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who through thine only begotten Son Jesus Christ hast overcome death, and opened unto us the gate of everlasting life: We humbly beseech thee, that as by thy special grace thou dost put into our minds good desires, so by thy continual help we may bring the same to good effect; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Colossians 3. 1.

IF ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things above, not on earthly things; for you have died, and your life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ, who is your life, shall be made manifest, then shall you also be made manifest with him in glory. Mortify, therefore, your members which are upon the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness which is idolatry; because of which cometh the wrath of God; in which you once walked yourselves when you lived in such things. But now you must put it all off: wrath, anger, malice, slander, and filthy talk out of your mouth; lie not to one another; cast off the old self with its evil deeds, and put on the new, which is being refashioned unto knowledge according to the image of its creator; in whom there is neither Greek nor Jew, neither circumcision nor uncircumcision, barbarian or Scythian, bond or free, but Christ is all in all.

THE GOSPEL. St John 20. 1.

THE first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Then she runneth and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him. Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. So they ran both together; and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre; and he, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen cloths lying; yet went he not in. Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen cloths lie; and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the Scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.

The following additional Collect may be used on Easter Day and throughout the Octave.

O GOD, who makest us glad with the yearly remembrance of the resurrection from the dead of thy only Son Jesus Christ: Grant that we who celebrate this Paschal feast may die daily unto sin, and live with him evermore in the glory of his endless life; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The following Epistle and Gospel may be used at a second service on Easter Day, or on the Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, or Saturday, in Easter Week.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Timothy 2. 8.

REMEMBER Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, of the seed of David, according to my gospel: wherein I suffer trouble as an evil doer, even unto bonds: but the word of God is not bound. Therefore I endure all things for the elect’s sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory. This is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him. If we endure, we shall also reign with him. If we deny him, he also will deny us. If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful; he cannot deny himself. Of these things put them in remembrance.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 16. 1.

WHEN the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. And they said among themselves, Who will roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there will ye see him, as he said unto you.

 

MONDAY IN EASTER WEEK

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who through thine only begotten Son Jesus Christ hast overcome death, and opened unto us the gate of everlasting life: We humbly beseech thee, that as by thy special grace thou dost put into our minds good desires, so by thy continual help we may bring the same to good effect; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 10. 34.

PETER opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons; but in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him. The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching good tidings of peace by Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all); that word, I say, ye know, which was published throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached: how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power; who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed by the devil: for God was with him. And we are witnesses of all things which he did, both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew, and hanged on a tree: him God raised up the third day, and showed him openly; not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to bear witness that it is he who was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive forgiveness of sins.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 24. 13.

BEHOLD, two of his disciples went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs. And they talked together of all these things which had happened. And it came to pass, that while they communed together, and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. But their eyes were holden, that they should not know him. And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have with one another, as ye walk? And they stood still, looking sorrowful. But one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answered and said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days? And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word, before God and all the people: and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him. But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done. Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre; and when they found not his body, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive. And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said; but him they saw not. Then he said unto them, Foolish ones, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses, and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. And they drew nigh unto the village whither they went; and he made as though he would have gone further: but they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is towards evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them. And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight. And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the Scriptures? And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them, saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in the breaking of the bread.

 

TUESDAY IN EASTER WEEK

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who through thine only-begotten Son Jesus Christ hast overcome death, and opened unto us the gate of everlasting life: We humbly beseech thee, that as by thy special grace thou dost put into our minds good desires, so by thy continual help we may bring the same to good effect; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 13. 26.

AND Paul stood up and said, Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever among you feareth God, to you is the word of this salvation sent. For they that dwell at Jerusalem and their rulers knew him not, nor did they understand the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath day, but fulfilled them by condemning him. And though they found no cause of death in him, yet desired they Pilate that he should be slain. And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre. But God raised him from the dead: and he was seen many days by them which came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses unto the people. And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was made unto the fathers, God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 24. 36.

AND as they spake these things, Jesus himself stood in the midst of his disciples, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled, and why do thoughts arise in your hearts? Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. And when he had thus spoken, he showed them his hands and his feet. And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any food? And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honey-comb. And he took it, and did eat before them. And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms concerning me. Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures, and said unto them, Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer, and rise again from the dead the third day; and that repentance unto forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name unto all nations, beginning from Jerusalem; and ye are witnesses of these things.

 

THE OCTAVE DAY OF EASTER

BEING THE SUNDAY AFTER EASTER DAY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY Father, who hast given thine only Son to die for our sins, and to rise again for our justification: Grant us so to put away the leaven of malice and wickedness, that we may alway serve thee in pureness of living and truth; through the merits of the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St John 5. 4.

WHATSOEVER is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith. Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God? This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and by blood: and it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. For there are three that bear witness, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one. If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater: for this is the witness of God, which he hath borne concerning his Son. He that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness in himself: he that believeth not God, hath made him a liar, because he believeth not the witness that God gave of his Son; and this is the witness, that God hath given to us eternal life; and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life.

THE GOSPEL. St John 20. 19.

THE same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. And when he had so said, he showed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: As my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained.

 

THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER EASTER

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who hast given thine only Son to be unto us both a sacrifice for sin, and also an example of godly life: Give us grace that we may always most thankfully receive that his inestimable benefit, and also daily endeavour ourselves to follow the blessed steps of his most holy life; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 2. 19.

THIS is thank-worthy, if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully. For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently; this is acceptable with God. For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps: who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously: who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.

THE GOSPEL. St John 10. 11.

JESUS said, I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth; and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling, and careth not for the sheep. I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine. As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one flock, and one shepherd.

 

THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER EASTER

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who showest to them that be in error the light of thy truth, to the intent that they may return into the way of righteousness: Grant unto all them that are admitted into the fellowship of Christ’s religion, that they may forsake those things that are contrary to their profession, and follow all such things as are agreeable to the same; through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 2. 11.

DEARLY beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul. Let your conduct among the Gentiles be honourable; that, whereas they speak against you as evil doers, they may, by your good works which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake; whether it be to the king, as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him, for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well-doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: as free men, and not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness; but as the servants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

THE GOSPEL. St John 16. 16.

JESUS said to his disciples, A little while and ye shall not see me; and again a little while and ye shall see me. Then said some of his disciples among themselves, What is this that he saith unto us, A little while and ye shall not see me; and again a little while and ye shall see me; and, Because I go to the Father? They said therefore, What is this that he saith, A little while? we cannot tell what he saith. Now Jesus knew that they were desirous to ask him, and said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves of that I said, A little while and ye shall not see me; and again a little while and ye shall see me? Verily, verily I say unto you, that ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy. A woman, when she is in travail, hath sorrow, because her hour is come: but as soon as she is delivered, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a child is born into the world. And ye now therefore have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you.

 

THE FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER EASTER

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who alone canst order the unruly wills and affections of sinful men: Grant unto thy people, that they may love the thing which thou commandest, and desire that which thou dost promise; that so, among the sundry and manifold changes of the world, our hearts may surely there be fixed, where true joys are to be found; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. St James 1. 17.

EVERY good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. Of his own will he brought us to birth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first-fruits of all his creation. Ye know this, my beloved brethren; and so let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath; for the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God. And therefore lay aside all filthiness and residue of wickedness, and receive with meekness the implanted word, which is able to save your souls.

THE GOSPEL. St John 16. 5.

JESUS said unto his disciples, Now I go my way to him that sent me, and none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou? But, because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Nevertheless, I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he Is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgement: of sin, because they believe not on me; of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more; of judgement, because the prince of this world is judged. I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you.

 

THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER EASTER

COMMONLY CALLED

ROGATION SUNDAY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, from whom all good things do come: Grant to us thy humble servants, that by thy holy inspiration we may think those things that be good, and by thy merciful guiding may perform the same; through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. St James 1. 22.

BE ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass. For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was. But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed. If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man’s religion is vain. Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.

THE GOSPEL. St John 16. 23.

JESUS said unto his disciples, Verily, verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give it you. Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full. These things have I spoken unto you in parables: the time cometh when I shall no more speak unto you in parables, but I shall show you plainly of the Father. At that day ye shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you; for the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came out from God. I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go to the Father. His disciples said unto him, Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no parable. Now are we sure that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee: by this we believe that thou camest forth from God. Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe? Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me. These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world.

 

THE ROGATION DAYS

BEING THE THREE DAYS BEFORE ASCENSION DAY

THE COLLECT.

ASSIST us mercifully, O Lord, in these our supplications and prayers, and dispose the way of thy servants towards the attainment of everlasting salvation; that, among all the changes and chances of this mortal life, they may ever be defended by thy most gracious and ready help; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Timothy 2. 1.

EXHORT therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; for kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour; who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time. Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity. I will therefore that men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 11. 1.

IT came to pass, that, as Jesus was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples. And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Father, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Give us day by day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins; for we ourselves also forgive every one that is Indebted to us. And bring us not into temptation. And he said unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight, and say unto him, Friend, lend me three loaves; for a friend of mine in his journey is come to me, and I have nothing to set before him? And he from within shall answer and say, Trouble me not: the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give thee. I say unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him as many as he needeth. And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you. For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.

Or the following Collect, Lesson, and Gospel may be used, for THE FRUITS OF THE EARTH AND THE LABOURS OF MEN.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and merciful God, from whom cometh every good and perfect gift: Bless, we beseech thee, the labours of thy people, and cause the earth to bring forth her fruits abundantly in their season, that we may with grateful hearts give thanks to thee for the same; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Genesis 1. 26.

AND God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for food; and it was so. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 4. 26.

JESUS said unto his disciples, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground; and should sleep and rise, night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the car, after that the full corn in the ear. But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it? It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth: but when it hath been sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the birds of the air may lodge under the shadow of it. And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it.

 

THE ASCENSION DAY

BEING THE FORTIETH DAY AFTER EASTER SOMETIMES CALLED HOLY THURSDAY

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, we beseech thee, Almighty God, that like as we do believe thy only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ to have ascended into the heavens; so we may also in heart and mind thither ascend, and with him continually dwell; who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 1. 1.

THE former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach, until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Spirit had given commandments unto the Apostles whom he had chosen: to whom also he showed himself alive after his passion by many proofs, appearing unto them during forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God: and, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water, but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence. When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel? And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power. But ye shall receive power after that the Holy Spirit is come upon you; and ye shall be witnesses unto me, both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven, as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 16. 14.

JESUS appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned. And these signs shall follow them that believe: In my name shall they cast out evil spirits; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. And they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following.

The same Collect, Lesson, and Gospel shall serve for every weekday after, unto the next Sunday, or unto the Octave Day if so desired, except upon the Feast of Saint Philip and Saint James.

 

SUNDAY AFTER ASCENSION DAY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD the King of Glory, who hast exalted thine only Son Jesus Christ with great triumph unto thy kingdom in heaven: We beseech thee, leave us not comfortless; but send to us thine Holy Ghost to comfort us, and exalt us unto the same place whither our Saviour Christ is gone before; who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 4. 7.

THE end of all things is at hand; be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer. And above all things have fervent charity among yourselves: for charity shall cover the multitude of sins. Use hospitality one to another without grudging. As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God: if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St John 15. 26.

AND Jesus said unto his disciples, When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: and ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning. These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be offended. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service. And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me. But these things have I told you, that, when the time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them.

 

THE DAY OF PENTECOST

BEING THE FIFTIETH DAY AFTER EASTER COMMONLY CALLED

WHITSUNDAY

These Anthems shall be sung or said instead of Venite at Morning Prayer, and may be used at the Holy Communion except when the latter Service is combined with Morning Prayer.

O SING unto the LORD a new song; / for he hath done marvellous things.
Psalm 98. 1.

Christ, being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, / hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.
Acts 2. 33.

And because ye are sons, / God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.
Galatians 4. 6.

We all, with open face / beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
Are changed into the same image from glory to glory, / even as by the Spirit of the Lord.
2 Corinthians 3. 18.

GLORY be to the Father, and to the Son, / and to the Holy Ghost;
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, / world without end. Amen.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who as at this time didst teach the hearts of thy faithful people, by the sending to them the light of thy Holy Spirit: Grant us by the same Spirit to have a right judgement in all things, and evermore to rejoice in his holy comfort; through the merits of Christ Jesus our Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the same Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

The Collect of Pentecost is to be used daily until Trinity Sunday.

The following additional Collect may be used on Whitsunday and the six days following.

O GOD, who makest us glad with the yearly remembrance of the coming of the Holy Spirit upon thy disciples in Jerusalem: Grant that we who celebrate before thee the Feast of Pentecost may continue thine for ever, and daily increase in thy Holy Spirit, until we come to thine eternal kingdom; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 2. 1.

WHEN the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues, like as of fire, and it rested upon each of them: and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. Now when this sound was heard, the multitude came together, and were bewildered, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. And they were all amazed, and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galilaeans? And how hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born? Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God.

THE GOSPEL. St John 14. 15.

JESUS said unto his disciples, If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. I will not leave you comfortless; I will come to you. Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also. At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you. He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me; and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. Judas saith unto him, (not Iscariot,) Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me. These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you. But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.

At a second service the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for THE UNITY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, page 213, may be used, the Collect of Pentecost preceding the Collect for Unity.

 

MONDAY AFTER PENTECOST

THE COLLECT.

GOD, who as at this time didst teach the hearts of thy faithful people, by the sending to them the light of thy Holy Spirit: Grant us by the same Spirit to have a right judgement in all things, and evermore to rejoice in his holy comfort; through the merits of Christ Jesus our Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the same Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 10. 34.

THEN Peter opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons; but in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him. The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching good tidings of peace by Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all); that word, I say, ye know, which was published throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached: how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power; who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed by the devil: for God was with him. And we are witnesses of all things which he did, both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew, and hanged on a tree: him God raised up the third day, and showed him openly; not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to bear witness that it is he who was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive forgiveness of sins. While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all them which heard the word. And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Spirit. For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Spirit as well as we? And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.

THE GOSPEL. St John 3. 16.

GOD so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world through him might be saved. He that believeth on him is not judged: but he that believeth not is judged already; because he hath not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God. And this is the judgement, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.

 

TUESDAY AFTER PENTECOST

THE COLLECT.

GOD, who as at this time didst teach the hearts of thy faithful people, by the sending to them the light of thy Holy Spirit: Grant us by the same Spirit to have a right judgement in all things, and evermore to rejoice in his holy comfort; through the merits of Christ Jesus our Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the same Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 8. 14.

WHEN the Apostles, which were at Jerusalem, heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter and John; who, when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit: (for as yet he was fallen upon none of them; only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit.

THE GOSPEL. St John 10. 1.

JESUS said unto his disciples, Verily, verily I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheep-fold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep: to him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice, and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out. And, when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him; for they know his voice. And a stranger will they not follow; but will flee from him; for they know not the voice of strangers. This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them. Then said Jesus unto them again; Verily, verily I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers; but the sheep did not hear them. I am the door; by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture. The thief cometh not but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly.

 

THE EMBER DAYS

BEING THE WEDNESDAY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY IN THE OCTAVE OF PENTECOST

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, the giver of all good gifts, who of thy divine providence hast appointed divers Orders in thy Church: Give thy grace, we humbly beseech thee, to all those who are to be called to any office and administration in the same; and so replenish them with the truth of thy doctrine, and endue them with innocency of life, that they may faithfully serve before thee, to the glory of thy great Name, and to the benefit of thy holy Church; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 12. 3.

FOR I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith. For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office; so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another. Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith; or ministry, let us wait on our ministering; or he that teacheth, on teaching; or he that exhorteth, on exhortation: he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity; he that ruleth, with diligence; he that showeth mercy, with cheerfulness. Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil, cleave to that which is good. Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love, in honour preferring one another: not slothful in business; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord; rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation; continuing instant in prayer; distributing to the necessity of saints; given to hospitality. Bless them which persecute you; bless, and curse not. Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep. Be of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own conceits. Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 10. 2.

THEREFORE said Jesus unto them, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest. Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves. Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way. And into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house. And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it: if not, it shall turn to you again. And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house. And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you: and heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go your ways out into the streets of the same, and say, Even the very dust of your city, which cleaveth on us, we do wipe off against you: notwithstanding be ye sure of this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.

This Collect, Epistle, and Gospel shall serve for the other Ember Seasons throughout the year. The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for the Ordination Services may also be used during the Ember Seasons.

On Ember Days the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, page 210, shall always be used first. The following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for THE UNITY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH may be used at a second service on Whitsunday or on any of the six days following, the Whitsunday Collect preceding; the Ember Day Collect also being used on the appointed days.

THE COLLECT.

O LORD Jesus Christ, who didst say unto thine Apostles, Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: Regard not our sins, but the faith of thy Church, and grant unto it that peace and unity which is agreeable to thy will; who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 4. 4.

THERE is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all. And unto every one of us is given grace, according to the measure of the gift of Christ; wherefore it is said,

He ascended up on high, he led captivity captive,
He gave gifts unto men.

And when it is said, He ascended, what is it but that he also descended into the lower parts of the earth? He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things. And he gave some, Apostles; and some, Prophets; and some, Evangelists; and some, Pastors and Teachers; for the perfecting of the saints for the work of the ministry, for the building up of the body of Christ; till we all come, in the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.

THE GOSPEL. St John 17. 20.

AND Jesus said, Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also that shall believe on me through their word; that they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. And the glory which thou gavest me, I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: I in them. and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, even as thou hast loved me. Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me; for thou didst love me before the foundation of the world. O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me; and I have declared unto them thy Name, and will declare it; that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them.

 

THE OCTAVE DAY OF PENTECOST

COMMONLY CALLED

TRINITY SUNDAY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who hast given unto us thy servants grace, by the confession of a true faith, to acknowledge the glory of the eternal Trinity, and in the power of the Divine Majesty to worship the Unity: We beseech thee, that this holy faith may evermore be our defence against all adversities; who livest and reignest, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Revelation 4. 1.

AFTER this I saw, and behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must be hereafter. And immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne: and he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardius stone: and a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald. And round about the throne four and twenty seats; and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and on their heads crowns of gold: and out of the throne proceed lightnings and thunderings and voices. And seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God; and before the throne as it were a sea of glass, like unto crystal; and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, four living creatures, full of eyes before and behind; the first one like a lion, and the second like a calf, and the third having a face like a man, and the fourth like a flying eagle; and every one of them had six wings; around and within they are full of eyes; and they rest not day or night, saying,

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God the Almighty,
Which was, and which is, and which is to come.

And when those living beings give glory and honour and thanks to him that sitteth upon the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, the four and twenty elders fall down before him that sitteth upon the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,

Thou art worthy, O Lord,
To receive glory and honour and power;
For thou hast created all things,
And for thy pleasure they are, and were created.

THE GOSPEL. St John 3. 1.

THERE was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: the same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these signs that thou doest, except God be with him. Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother’s womb, and be born? Jesus answered,, Verily, verily I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth; so is every one that is born of the Spirit. Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be? Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? Verily, verily I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not; how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man, who is in heaven. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.

 

THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST

COMMONLY CALLED

THE FIRST SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, the strength of all them that put their trust in thee: Mercifully accept our prayers; and because through the weakness of our mortal nature we can do no good thing without thee, grant us the help of thy grace, that in keeping of thy commandments we may please thee both in will and deed; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St John 4. 7.

BELOVED, let us love one another: for love is of God, and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love. In this was manifested the love of God towards us, because that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins. Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another. No man hath seen God at any time. If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us. Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us; because he hath given us of his Spirit. And we have seen, and do testify, that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world. Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwelleth in him, and he in God. And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him. Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgement; because as he is, so are we in this world. There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear; because fear hath torment: he that feareth is not made perfect in love. We love him, because he first loved us. If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen? And this commandment have we from him, that he who loveth God love his brother also.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 16. 19.

AND Jesus spake a parable unto them, saying, There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day. And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man’s table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried: and in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy life-time receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. And besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they who would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father’s house: for I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. And he said, Nay, father Abraham; but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent. And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.

 

THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, who never failest to help and govern them whom thou dost bring up in thy stedfast fear and love: Keep us, we beseech thee, under the protection of thy good providence, and make us to have a perpetual fear and love of thy holy Name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St John 3. 13.

MARVEL not, my brethren, if the world hate you. We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not his brother abideth in death. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer; and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him. Hereby we know love, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. But whoso hath this world’s good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his heart against him; how dwelleth the love of God in him? My little children, let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed, and in truth. And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him. For if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things. Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence towards God. And whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight. And this is his commandment, That we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love one another, as he gave us commandment. And he that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him, and he in him: and hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 14. 15.

AND one of them that sat at meat with Jesus said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. Then said he unto him, A certain man made a great supper, and bade many; and sent his servant at supper-time to say to them that were bidden, Come, for all things are now ready. And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it; I pray thee have me excused. And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them; I pray thee have me excused. And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come. So that servant came and showed his lord these things. Then the master of the house being angry said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the halt, and the blind. And the servant said, Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded, and yet there is room. And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. For I say unto you, That none of those men which were bidden shall taste of my supper.

 

THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, we beseech thee mercifully to hear us; and grant that we, to whom thou hast given an hearty desire to pray, may by thy mighty aid be defended and comforted in all dangers and adversities; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 5. 5.

ALL of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble. Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time; casting all your care upon him, for he careth for you. Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour: whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world. And the God of all grace, who hath called you into his eternal glory in Christ, after that ye have suffered a while, shall himself restore, stablish, strengthen you. To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 15. 1.

THEN drew near unto him all the publicans and sinners for to hear him. And the Pharisees and Scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them. And he spake this parable unto them, saying, What man of you having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it? And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost. I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance. Either what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently till she find it? And when she hath found it, she calleth her friends and her neighbours together, saying, Rejoice with me, for I have found the piece which I had lost. Likewise, I say unto you, There is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth.

 

THE FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, the protector of all that trust in thee, without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy: Increase and multiply upon us thy mercy; that, thou being our ruler and guide, we may so pass through things temporal, that we finally lose not the things eternal. Grant this, O heavenly Father, for Jesus Christ’s sake our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 8. 18.

I RECKON that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed unto us; for the earnest expectation of the whole creation is waiting for the revelation of the sons of God. For the creation was not made subject to vanity of its own will, but in accordance with the will of him who made it subject in hope; for the creation itself shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. And not only so, but we ourselves, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit, groan within ourselves, waiting for our full adoption as sons, even the redemption of our body.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 6. 36.

JESUS said unto his disciples, Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful. Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven: give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal, it shall be measured to you again. And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch? The disciple is not above his master; but every one that is perfect shall be as his master. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Either how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother’s eye.

 

THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, O Lord, we beseech thee, that the course of this world may be so peaceably ordered by thy governance, that thy Church may joyfully serve thee in all godly quietness; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 3. 8.

BE ye all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, be pitiful, be courteous; not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing. For

He that will love life,
And see good days,
Let him refrain his tongue from evil,
And his lips that they speak no guile:
Let him forsake evil, and do good;
Let him seek peace, and follow after it.
For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous,
And his ears are open unto their prayers:
But the face of the Lord is against them that do evil.

And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good? But and if ye suffer for righteousness’ sake, happy are ye: and be not afraid of their terror, neither be troubled; but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 5. 1.

IT came to pass that as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, Jesus stood by the lake of Gennesaret, and saw two ships standing by the lake; but the fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing their nets. And he entered into one of the ships, which was Simon’s, and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land: and he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship. Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught. And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing; nevertheless, at thy word I will let down the net. And when they had this done, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes, and their net brake. And they beckoned unto their partners which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink. When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying, Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord. For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken; and so was also James, and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not, from henceforth thou shalt catch men. And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all, and followed him.

 

THE SIXTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who hast prepared for them that love thee such good things as pass man’s understanding: Pour into our hearts such love toward thee, that we, loving thee above all things, may obtain thy promises, which exceed all that we can desire; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 6. 3.

KNOW ye not that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we were buried with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted with him in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: knowing this, that our old Adam was crucified with him, that our sinful self might be destroyed, that we should never again be the slaves of sin. Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him; knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he died unto sin once; but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 6. 27.

JESUS said, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you, bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you. And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek, offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloak, forbid not to take thy coat also. Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods, ask them not again. And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. For if ye love them which love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them. And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same. And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again. But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful, and to the evil. Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.

 

THE SEVENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

LORD of all power and might, who art the author and giver of all good things: Graft in our hearts the love of thy Name, increase in us true religion, nourish us with all goodness, and of thy great mercy keep us in the same; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 6. 17.

THANKS be to God that you, who were once slaves to sin, have obeyed from the heart that pattern of teaching whereunto you were delivered; you were set free from sin, and have become servants of righteousness. I speak after the manner of men because of the weakness of your human nature; for just as you once offered your bodily members to serve uncleanness, and to iniquity after iniquity, even so you now offer them as servants of righteousness unto holiness. For when you were the servants of sin, you were free from righteousness. What fruit had you then in those things whereof you are now ashamed? for the end of those things is death. But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, you have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life. For the wages of sin is death: but the free gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 8. 1.

IN those days the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and saith unto them, I have compassion on the multitude, because they have now been with me three days, and have nothing to eat: and if I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by the way; for many of them came from a distance. And his disciples answered him, How can any one satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness? And he asked them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven. And he commanded the people to sit down on the ground. And he took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people. And they had a few small fishes; and he blessed, and commanded to set them also before them. So they ate, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets. And they that had eaten were about four thousand. And he sent them away.

 

THE EIGHTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, whose never-failing providence ordereth all things both in heaven and earth: We humbly beseech thee to put away from us all hurtful things, and to give us those things which be profitable for us; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 8. 12.

MY brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the manner of the flesh; for if you live after the manner of the flesh, you will die; but if through the Spirit you mortify the deeds of the body, you will live. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For you have not received a spirit of servitude again unto fear; you have received a spirit of sonship, in which we cry aloud, Abba, Father; the Spirit himself bearing witness with our spirit, that we are children of God: and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and fellow-heirs with Christ: if so be that we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 7. 15.

JESUS said unto his disciples, Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit; neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.

 

THE NINTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

GRANT to us, Lord, we beseech thee, the spirit to think and do always such things as be rightful; that we, who cannot do any thing that is good without thee, may by thee be enabled to live according to thy will; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 10. 1.

BRETHREN, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud, and in the sea; and did all eat the same spiritual food, and did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual rock that followed them; and that rock was Christ. But with many of them God was not well pleased; for they were overthrown in the wilderness. Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted. Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall. There hath no temptation taken you, but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it. Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry. I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 16. 1.

JESUS said unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he was wasting his goods. And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee? Give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward. Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig, to beg I am ashamed. I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. So he called every one of his master’s debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou to my master? And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty. Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write fourscore. And his master praised the unrighteous steward, because he had acted with prudence: for the children of this age are in their generation more prudent than the children of light. And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends by means of the mammon of unrighteousness; and when it fails you, they will receive you into everlasting habitations. He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much; and he that is unrighteous in that which is least is unrighteous also in much.

 

THE TENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

LET thy merciful ears, O Lord, be open to the prayers of thy humble servants; and that they may obtain their petitions make them to ask such things as shall please thee; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 12. 1.

CONCERNING spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant. You know that when you were Gentiles, you were carried away unto these dumb idols, even as you were led. Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed; and that no man can say JESUS IS LORD, but by the Holy Spirit. Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are diversities of ministrations, but the same Lord. And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God, who worketh all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man for the common good. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues. But all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 19. 41.

AND when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it, saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, and shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation. And he went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought, saying unto them, It is written, My house is the house of prayer: but ye have made it a den of thieves. And he taught daily in the temple.

 

THE ELEVENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who declarest thy almighty power most chiefly in showing mercy and pity: Mercifully grant unto us such a measure of thy grace, that we, running the way of thy commandments, may obtain thy gracious promises, and be made partakers of thy heavenly treasure; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 15. 1.

BRETHREN, I declare unto you the Gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand: by which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all, that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures; and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures; and that he was seen by Peter; then by the twelve: after that, he was seen by above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep: after that, he was seen of James; then of all the Apostles: and last of all, he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. For I am the least of the Apostles, that am not meet to be called an Apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God. But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all; yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me. Therefore whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 18. 9.

JESUS spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a Publican. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this Publican: I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess. And the Publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

 

THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who art always more ready to hear than we to pray, and art wont to give more than either we desire or deserve: Pour down upon us the abundance of thy mercy; forgiving us those things whereof our conscience is afraid, and giving us those good things which we are not worthy to ask, but through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ, thy Son, our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Corinthians 3. 4.

SUCH trust have we through Christ to Godward: not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves; but our sufficiency is from God, who hath even made us worthy to be ministers of the new covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. But if the ministration of death written and engraven in stones was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away; how shall not the ministration of the spirit be even more glorious? For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 7. 31.

JESUS, departing from the region of Tyre, came through Sidon unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the region of Decapolis. And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him. And he took him aside from the multitude, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spit, and touched his tongue; and looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him,Ephphatha, that is, Be opened. And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain. And he charged them that they should tell no man: but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it; and were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well; he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.

 

THE THIRTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and merciful God, of whose only gift it cometh that thy faithful people do unto thee true and laudable service: Grant, we beseech thee, that we may so faithfully serve thee in this life, that we fail not finally to attain thy heavenly promises; through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Galatians 5. 16.

I SAY then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the desire of the flesh. For the desire of the flesh is against the Spirit, and the Spirit is against the flesh; and these are contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. But if ye be led by the Spirit, ye are not under the law. Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you beforehand, as I have also told you in time past, that they who do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance: against such there is no law. And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 10. 25.

AND behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself. And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right; this do, and thou shalt live. But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour? And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead. And by chance there came down a certain Priest that way, and, when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was; and, when he saw him, he had compassion on him, and went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. And on the morrow, when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee. Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves? And he said, He that showed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.

For the Autumn Ember Days see page 245.

 

THE FOURTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, give unto us the increase of faith, hope, and charity; and, that we may obtain that which thou dost promise, make us to love that which thou dost command; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Galatians 5. 25.

IF we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. Let us not be desirous of vain-glory, provoking one another, envying one another. Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such a one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou be also tempted. Bear ye one another’s burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ. For if a man think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself. But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another; for every man shall bear his own burden.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 17. 11.

AND it came to pass, as Jesus went to Jerusalem, that he passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee. And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar off: and they lifted up their voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us. And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go, show yourselves unto the priests. And it came to pass that, as they went, they were cleansed. And one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God, and fell down on his face at his feet, giving him thanks; and he was a Samaritan. And Jesus answering said, Were there not ten cleansed? but where are the nine? There are not found that returned to give glory to God, save this stranger. And he said unto him, Arise, go thy way, thy faith hath made thee whole.

For the Autumn Ember Days see page 245.

 

THE FIFTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

KEEP, we beseech thee, O Lord, thy Church with thy perpetual mercy; and, because the frailty of man without thee cannot but fall, keep us ever by thy help from all things hurtful, and lead us to all things profitable to our salvation; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Galatians 6. 11.

YE see with what large letters I write unto you with my own hand. As many as desire to make a fair show in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ. For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God. From henceforth let no man trouble me; for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 6. 24.

NO man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and Mammon. Therefore I say unto you, Be not anxious about your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? Behold the fowls of the air; for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? Which of you by being anxious can add one cubit unto his stature? And why be ye anxious concerning raiment? Consider the lilies of the field how they grow: they toil not, neither do they spin: and yet I say unto you, that even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven; shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith? Therefore be not anxious, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Be ye not therefore anxious about the morrow; for the morrow shall take care for itself: sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

For the Autumn Ember Days see page 245.

 

THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, we beseech thee, let thy continual pity cleanse and defend thy Church; and, because it cannot continue in safety without thy succour, preserve it evermore by thy help and goodness; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 3. 13.

I DESIRE that ye faint not at my tribulations for you, which is your glory. For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father, from whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God. Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us, unto him be glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 7. 11.

AND it came to pass the day after, that Jesus went into a city called Nain; and many of his disciples went with him, and much people. Now when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow; and much people of the city was with her. And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not. And he came and touched the bier; and they that bare him stood still: and he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak: and he delivered him to his mother. And there came a fear on all, and they glorified God, saying, that a great Prophet is risen up among us, and that God hath visited his people. And this rumour of him went forth throughout all Judaea, and throughout all the region round about.

For the Autumn Ember Days see page 245.

 

THE SEVENTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

LORD, we pray thee that thy grace may always prevent and follow us, and make us continually to be given to all good works; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 4. 1.

I THEREFORE the prisoner of the Lord beseech you, that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called, with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love; endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 14. 1.

IT came to pass, as Jesus went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him. And behold, there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy. And Jesus answering spake unto the Lawyers and Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day? And they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go; and answered them, saying, Which of you shall have an ass, or an ox, fallen into a pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath day? And they could not answer him again to these things. And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief seats, saying unto them, When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the chief seat; lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden of him; and he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou begin with shame to take the lowest seat. But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest seat; that, when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have glory in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee. For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.

 

THE AUTUMN EMBER DAYS

BEING THE WEDNESDAY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY AFTER HOLY CROSS DAY (SEPTEMBER 14)

On Ember Days the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, page 210, shall always be used first. The following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for LABOUR AND INDUSTRY may be used, with the Ember Collect added, at a second Ember Day Service during the week; and are also suitable for Labour Day and for other weekdays for which no special provision has been made in this Book.

THE COLLECT.

O LORD Jesus Christ, who in thy earthly life didst share man’s toil, and thereby hallow the labour of his hands: Prosper all those who maintain the industries of this land; and give them pride in their work, a just reward for their labour, and joy both in supplying the needs of others and in serving thee their Saviour; who with the Father and the Holy Spirit livest and reignest, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Thessalonians 3. 6.

NOW we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received from us. For yourselves know how ye ought to follow us; for we behaved not ourselves disorderly among you; neither did we eat any man’s bread for nothing; but worked with labour and toil, night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you; not because we have not the power, but to make ourselves an example unto you to follow us. For even when we were with you, we gave you this command, that if any man would not work, neither should he eat. For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies. Now them that are such, we command and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that they work with quietness and eat their own bread. And ye, brethren, be not weary of well-doing.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 6. 31.

JESUS said to his disciples, As ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. For if ye love them that love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them. And if ye do good to them that do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same. And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again. But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful, and to the evil. Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful. Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven: give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that you use for measuring, it shall be measured to you again.

 

THE EIGHTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

LORD, we beseech thee, grant thy people grace to withstand the temptations of the world, the flesh, and the devil, and with pure hearts and minds to follow thee the only God; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 1. 4.

I THANK my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ; that in every thing ye are enriched by him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge; even as the witness of Christ was confirmed in you; so that ye come behind in no gift; waiting for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, who also shall confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 12. 28.

AND one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all? And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength. This is the first commandment; and the second is like it, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he; and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is better than all the burnt offerings and sacrifices. And when Jesus saw that he answered intelligently, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And after that no one dared to ask him any question. And Jesus answered and said, while he was teaching in the temple, How say the scribes that the Christ is the son of David? For David himself saith by the Holy Spirit,

The LORD said unto my lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
Until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

David himself calleth him his lord; how then can he be his son? And the common people heard him gladly.

 

THE NINETEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, forasmuch as without thee we are not able to please thee: Mercifully grant, that thy Holy Spirit may in all things direct and rule our hearts; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 4. 17.

THIS I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their mind; having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart: who, being past feeling, have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness. But ye have not so learned Christ; if so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus: that ye put off, concerning your former manner of life, the old manhood, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts; and be renewed in the spirit of your mind; and that ye put on the new manhood, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. Wherefore, putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour: for we are members one of another. Be ye angry and yet sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath: neither give place to the devil. Let him that stole steal no more; but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth. Let no evil speech proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the hearers. And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption. Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evilspeaking, be put away from you, with all malice. And be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 9. 1.

JESUS entered into a ship, and passed over, and came into his own city. And behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed. And Jesus, seeing their faith, said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, be of good cheer, thy sins be forgiven thee. And behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This man blasphemeth. And Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, Wherefore think ye evil in your hearts? For whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee? or to say, Arise, and walk? But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house. And he arose, and departed to his house. But when the multitude saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, who had given such power unto men.

 

THE TWENTIETH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY and most merciful God, of thy bountiful goodness keep us, we beseech thee, from all things that may hurt us; that we, being ready both in body and soul, may cheerfully accomplish those things that thou wouldest have done; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 5. 15.

SEE then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil. Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; speaking to yourselves in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs; singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 22. 1.

JESUS said, The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, who made a marriage for his son; and sent forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding; and they would not come. Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready; come unto the marriage. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise: and the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew them. But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth; and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burnt up their city. Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they who were bidden were not worthy. Go ye therefore into the high-ways, and as many as ye shall find bid to the marriage. So those servants went out into the high-ways, and gathered together all, as many as they found, both bad and good; and the wedding was furnished with guests. And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding-garment. And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither, not having a wedding-garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen.

 

THE TWENTY-FIRST SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, we beseech thee, merciful Lord, to thy faithful people pardon and peace; that they may be cleansed from all their sins, and serve thee with a quiet mind; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 6. 10.

MY brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might. Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and, having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth; and having on the breast-plate of righteousness; and your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace; above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one: and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God: praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance, and supplication for all saints; and for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the Gospel, for which I am an ambassador in bonds; that therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.

THE GOSPEL. St John 4. 46.

THERE was a certain nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum. When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judaea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down and heal his son; for he was at the point of death. Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe. The nobleman saith unto him, Sir, come down ere my child die. Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way, thy son liveth. And the man believed the word that Jesus had spoken unto him, and he went his way. And as he was now going down, his servants met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth. Then inquired he of them the hour when he began to amend: and they said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him. So the father knew that it was at the same hour, in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth; and himself believed, and his whole house. This is again the second sign that Jesus did, when he was come out of Judaea into Galilee.

 

THE TWENTY-SECOND SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

LORD, we beseech thee to keep thy house hold the Church in continual godliness; that through thy protection it may be free from all adversities, and devoutly given to serve thee in good works, to the glory of thy Name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Philippians 1. 3.

I THANK my God upon every remembrance of you, always in every prayer of mine for you all making request with joy, for your fellowship in the Gospel from the first day until now; being confident of this very thing, that he who hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ; even as it is meet for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart, inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the Gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace. For God is my witness, how greatly I long after you all in the mercies of Jesus Christ. And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all judgement: that ye may approve things that are excellent; that ye may be sincere, and without offence, till the day of Christ: being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ unto the glory and praise of God.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 18. 21.

PETER said unto Jesus, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times? Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, until seven times; but until seventy times seven. Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants. And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents. But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. The servant therefore fell on his face before him, and said, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt. But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellow-servants, which owed him an hundred pence; and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest. And his fellow-servant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. And he would not; but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt. So when his fellow-servants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done. Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me: shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee? And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him. So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses.

 

THE TWENTY-THIRD SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, our refuge and strength, who art the author of all godliness: Be ready, we beseech thee, to hear the devout prayers of thy Church; and grant that those things which we ask faithfully we may obtain effectually; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Philippians 3. 17.

BRETHREN, be followers together of me, and mark them which walk so as ye have us for an example. (For many walk, of whom I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ; whose end is destruction, whose god is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things.) For our citizenship is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ; who shall change this lowly body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 22. 15.

THEN went the Pharisees and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, what thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? show me the tribute-money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Caesar’s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s. When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

 

THE TWENTY-FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

THE COLLECT.

O LORD, we beseech thee, absolve thy people from their offences; that through thy bountiful goodness we may all be delivered from the bands of those sins, which by our frailty we have committed. Grant this, O heavenly Father, for Jesus Christ’s sake, our blessed Lord and Saviour. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Colossians 1. 3.

WE give thanks to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you, since we heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love which ye have to all the saints; for the hope which is laid up for you in heaven, whereof ye heard before in the word of the truth of the Gospel; which is come unto you, as it is in all the world, and bringeth forth fruit and increaseth, as it doth also in you, since the day ye heard of it, and knew the grace of God in truth. As ye also learned of Epaphras, our dear fellow-servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf; who also declared unto us your love in the Spirit. For this cause we also, since the day we heard it, do not cease to pray for you and make request that ye might be filled with the knowledge of his will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding: that ye might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; strengthened with all might, according to his glorious power, unto all patience and longsuffering with joyfulness; giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 9. 18.

WHILE Jesus spake these things unto John’s disciples, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead; but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples. And behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment: for she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole. But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort, thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour. And when Jesus came into the ruler’s house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, he said unto them, Give place; for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn. But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land.

If there be an additional Sunday, preceding the Sunday before Advent, the Service of the Sixth Sunday after the Epiphany shall be used; if there be two additional Sundays, the Services of the Fifth and Sixth.

 

THE SUNDAY NEXT BEFORE ADVENT

THE COLLECT.

STIR up, we beseech thee, O Lord, the wills of thy faithful people; that they, plenteously bringing forth the fruit of good works, may of thee be plenteously rewarded; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Jeremiah 23. 5.

BEHOLD, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgement and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Therefore behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that they shall no more say, The LORD liveth, which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but, The LORD liveth, which brought up, and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north-country, and from all countries whither I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.

THE GOSPEL. St John 1. 35.

JOHN the Baptist stood, with two of his disciples; and looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God! And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi (which is, being interpreted, Master), where dwellest thou? He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day, for it was about the tenth hour. One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. He first findeth his own brother, Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messiah (which is, being interpreted, the Christ). And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of John: thou shalt be called Cephas (which is, by interpretation, A stone). The day following, Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.

 

HOLY-DAYS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR

SAINT ANDREW THE APOSTLE

November 30.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who didst give such grace unto thy holy Apostle Saint Andrew, that he readily obeyed the calling of thy Son Jesus Christ, and followed him without delay: Grant unto us all, that we, being called by thy holy word, may forthwith give up ourselves obediently to fulfil thy holy commandments; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 10. 8.

WHAT saith the Scripture?

Near is the word, in thy mouth and in thy heart, even the word which we proclaim. If thou shalt confess with thy mouth that Jesus is Lord, and shalt believe in thy heart that God raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved; for with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. For the Scripture saith,

Whosoever believeth on him shall not be put to shame.

For there is no difference between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord of all is rich unto all that call upon him; for

Whosoever shall call upon the Name of the Lord shall be saved.

How then shall they call upon him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher? And how shall they preach unless they be sent? As it is written,

How beautiful are the feet of them that bring glad tidings of good things!

But they have not all obeyed the Gospel; for Isaiah saith,

Lord, who hath believed our report?

So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. And yet I say, Have they not heard? Yea, verily,

Their sound went out into all the earth, And their words unto the ends of the world.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 4. 18.

JESUS, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishers. And he saith unto them, Follow me; and I will make you fishers of men. And they straightway left their nets, and followed him. And going on from thence he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.

 

SAINT THOMAS THE APOSTLE

December 21.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everliving God, who for the more confirmation of the faith didst suffer thy holy Apostle Thomas to be doubtful in thy Son’s resurrection: Grant us so perfectly, and without all doubt, to believe in thy Son Jesus Christ, that our faith in thy sight may never be reproved. Hear us, O Lord, through the same Jesus Christ, to whom, with thee and the Holy Spirit, be all honour and glory, now and for evermore. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 2. 19.

NOW therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God; and are built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone; in whom all the building, fitly framed together, groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord; in whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.

THE GOSPEL. St John 20. 24.

THOMAS, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side; and be not faithless, but believing. And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord, and my God. Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed; blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.

CHRISTMAS DAY: see page 104.

ST STEPHEN THE MARTYR: see page 108.

ST JOHN THE EVANGELIST: see page 110.

THE INNOCENTS: see page 111.

THE OCTAVE DAY OF CHRISTMAS AND THE CIRCUMCISION OF CHRIST: see page 115.

THE EPIPHANY OF OUR LORD: see page 117.

 

THE CONVERSION OF SAINT PAUL

January 25.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who, through the preaching of the blessed Apostle Saint Paul, hast caused the light of the Gospel to shine throughout the world: Grant, we beseech thee, that we, having his wonderful conversion in remembrance, may show forth our thankfulness unto thee for the same, by following the holy doctrine which he taught; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 21. 40.

PAUL stood on the stairs, and beckoned with the hand unto the people. And when there was made a great silence, he spake unto them in the Hebrew tongue, saying, Men, brethren, and fathers, hear ye my defence which I make now unto you. And when they heard that he spake in the Hebrew tongue to them, they kept the more silence: and he saith, I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day. And I persecuted this Way unto the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. As also the high priest doth bear me witness, and all the estate of the elders: from whom also I received letters unto the brethren, and went to Damascus, to bring them which were there bound unto Jerusalem, for to be punished. And it came to pass, that, as I made my journey, and was come nigh unto Damascus about noon, suddenly there shone from heaven a great light round about me. And I fell unto the ground, and heard a voice saying unto me, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? And I answered, Who art thou, Lord? And he said unto me, I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest. And they that were with me saw indeed the light, and were afraid; but they heard not the voice of him that spake to me. And I said, What shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said unto me, Arise, and go into Damascus; and there it shall be told thee of all things which are appointed for thee to do. And when I could not see for the glory of that light, being led by the hand of them that were with me, I came into Damascus. And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt there, came unto me, and stood, and said unto me, Brother Saul, receive thy sight. And the same hour I looked up upon him. And he said, The God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest know his will, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear the voice of his mouth. For thou shalt be his witness unto all men of what thou hast seen and heard. And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 21. 10.

AND Jesus said unto his disciples, Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven. But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name’s sake. And it shall turn to you for a testimony. Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before what ye shall answer: for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist. And ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolk, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to be put to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake. But there shall not an hair of your head perish. In your patience possess ye your souls.

 

THE PRESENTATION OF CHRIST IN THE TEMPLE

COMMONLY CALLED

THE PURIFICATION OF SAINT MARY THE VIRGIN

February 2.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY and everliving God, we humbly beseech thy Majesty, that, as thy only-begotten Son was this day presented in the temple in substance of our flesh, so we may be presented unto thee with pure and clean hearts, by the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Malachi 3. 1.

BEHOLD, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple; even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in; behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts. But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’ soap. And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness. Then shall the offerings of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the LORD, as in the days of old, and as in former years. And I will come near to you to judgement, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow and the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger from his right, and fear not me, saith the LORD of hosts.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 2. 22.

AND when the days of her purification, according to the law of Moses, were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord; (as it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;) and to offer a sacrifice, according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtle-doves, or two young pigeons. And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Spirit was upon him. And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Spirit, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. And he came by the Spirit into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law, then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,

Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace,
According to thy word:
For mine eyes have seen thy salvation,
Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people;
A light to lighten the Gentiles,
And the glory of thy people Israel.

And Joseph and his mother marvelled at those things which were spoken of him. And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against; (yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also;) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. And there was one Anna a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher; she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her virginity: and she was a widow of about fourscore and four years; which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day. And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem. And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee to their own city Nazareth. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom; and the grace of God was upon him.

 

SAINT MATTHIAS THE APOSTLE

February 24.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who into the place of the traitor Judas didst choose thy faithful servant Matthias to be of the number of the twelve Apostles: Grant that thy Church, being alway preserved from false Apostles, may be ordered and guided by faithful and true pastors; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 1. 15.

IN those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said, (the number of the names together were about an hundred and twenty,) Men and brethren, this Scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus: for he was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels pushed out. And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem, insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, Akeldama, that is to say, The field of blood. For it is written in the book of Psalms,

Let his habitation be desolate,
And let no man dwell therein;

and

His bishopric let another take.

Wherefore, of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection. And they put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, show which of these two thou hast chosen; that he may take his place in this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. And they gave forth their lots; and the lot fell upon Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven Apostles.

THE GOSPEL. St John 15. 1.

I AM the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned. If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you. Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples. As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love. If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father’s commandments, and abide in his love. These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.

 

THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY

March 25.

THE COLLECT.

WE beseech thee, O Lord, pour thy grace into our hearts; that, as we have known the incarnation of thy Son Jesus Christ by the message of an angel, so by his cross and passion we may be brought unto the glory of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Isaiah 7. 10.

MOREOVER, the LORD spake again unto Ahaz, saying, Ask thee a sign of the LORD thy God; ask it either in the depth, or in the height above. But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I tempt the LORD. And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; Is it a small thing for you to weary men, but will ye weary my God also? Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 1. 26.

AND in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a Virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the Virgin’s name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee. And she was troubled at this saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son, and shalt call his name JESUS.

He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest;
And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David.
And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever;
And of his kingdom there shall be no end.

Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her,

The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee,
And the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee:
Therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee
Shall be called the Son of God.

And behold, thy cousin Elizabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren: for with God nothing shall be impossible. And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.

 

SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST

April 25.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who hast instructed thy holy Church with the heavenly doctrine of thy Evangelist Saint Mark: Give us grace, that, being not like children carried away with every blast of vain doctrine, we may be established in the truth of thy holy Gospel; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 4. 11.

AND he gave some, Apostles; and some, Prophets and some, Evangelists; and some, Pastors and Teachers; for the perfecting of the saints for the work of the ministry, for the building up of the body of Christ; till we all come, in the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: that we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; but speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him In all things, which is the head, even Christ: from whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body, unto the building up of itself in love.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 13. 1.

AND as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here! And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled? And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows. But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them. And the gospel must first be published among all nations.

 

SAINT PHILIP AND SAINT JAMES THE APOSTLES

WITH SAINT JAMES THE BROTHER OF THE LORD MARTYR

May 1.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, whom truly to know is everlasting life: Grant us perfectly to know thy Son Jesus Christ to be the way, the truth, and the life; that, following the steps of thy holy Apostles, Saint Philip and Saint James, we may stedfastly walk in the way that leadeth to eternal life; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The following additional Collect, of the Brethren of the Lord, may be said at the discretion of the Priest.

O HEAVENLY Father, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning: We bless thy holy Name for the witness of James and Jude, the kinsmen of the Lord, and pray that we may be made true members of thy heavenly family; through him who willed to be the firstborn among many brethren, even the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. St James 1. 1.

JAMES, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting. My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into manifold temptations; knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be given him. But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering; for he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea, driven with the wind, and tossed. For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways. Let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted; but the rich in that he is made low; because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away. For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways. Blessed is the man that endureth temptation; for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.

THE GOSPEL. St John 14. 1.

AND Jesus said unto his disciples, Let not your heart be troubled; ye believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you: and if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself, that where I am, there ye may be also. And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know. Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest, and how can we know the way? Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father but by me. If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him. Philip saith unto him, Lord, show us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? He that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself; but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. Believe me, that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works’ sake. Verily, verily I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father. And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it.

 

SAINT BARNABAS THE APOSTLE

June 11.

THE COLLECT.

O LORD God Almighty, who didst endue thy holy Apostle Barnabas with singular gifts of the Holy Spirit: Leave us not, we beseech thee, destitute of thy manifold gifts, nor yet of grace to use them alway to thy honour and glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 11. 22.

TIDINGS of these things came unto the ears of the Church which was in Jerusalem; and they sent forth Barnabas, that he should go as far as Antioch. Who, when he came, and had seen the grace of God, was glad; and exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord. For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith: and much people was added unto the Lord. Then departed Barnabas to Tarsus, for to seek Saul. And when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the Church, and taught much people: and the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.

THE GOSPEL. St John 15. 12.

AND Jesus spake unto his disciples, saying, This is my commandment, that ye love one another, as I have loved you. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you. Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you. Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.

 

THE NATIVITY OF SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST

June 24.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, by whose providence thy servant John Baptist was wonderfully born, and sent to prepare the way of thy Son our Saviour, by preaching of repentance: Make us so to follow his doctrine and holy life, that we may truly repent according to his preaching, and after his example constantly speak the truth, boldly rebuke vice, and patiently suffer for the truth’s sake; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

With the following, for CANADA, if desired.

O GOD, who didst lead the fathers of our nation into this land of Canada, and hast increased us by thy favour: Grant, we beseech thee, that we who now enter into their inheritance, may prove ourselves a people mindful of thy mercies and ready to do thy will; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Isaiah 40. 1.

COMFORT ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God. Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned; for she hath received of the LORD’S hand double for all her sins. The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a high-way for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low, and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and it all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it. The voice said, Cry. And he said, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth, because the Spirit of the LORD bloweth upon it: surely the people is grass. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth; but the word of our God shall stand for ever. O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain: O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift it up, be not afraid: say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God. Behold, the Lord GOD will come with strong hand, and his arm shall rule for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him. He shall feed his flock like a shepherd; he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 1. 57.

ELIZABETH’S full time came that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son. And her neighbours and her cousins heard how the Lord had showed great mercy upon her; and they rejoiced with her. And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John. And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. And he asked for a writing-table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all. And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, and praised God. And fear came on all that dwelt round about them; and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill-country of Judaea. And all they that had heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be? And the hand of the Lord was with him. And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying,

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel:
For he hath visited and redeemed his people,
And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us
In the house of his servant David;
As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets,
Which have been since the world began;
That we should be saved from our enemies,
And from the hand of all that hate us;
To perform the mercy promised to our fathers,
And to remember his holy covenant;
The oath which he sware to our father Abraham,
That he would grant unto us, that we, being delivered out of the hands of our enemies,
Might serve him without fear,
In holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life.
And thou, child, shalt be called the Prophet of the Highest:
For thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;
To give knowledge of salvation unto his people,
By the remission of their sins,
Through the tender mercy of our God,
Whereby the day-spring from on high hath visited us;
To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death;
To guide our feet into the way of peace.

And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit; and was in the deserts till the day of his showing unto Israel.

The following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel may be used on any day from that of St John the Baptist (anniversary of the landing of John Cabot in Newfoundland, 1497) to Dominion Day, July 1 (anniversary of the Confederation of Canada, 1867); or on the Accession Day, or on such other national occasions as may be appointed by proper authority, the Collect of the day always being used.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who providest for thy people by thy power, and rulest over them in love: Vouchsafe so to bless thy servant our Queen, and her Government in this Dominion of Canada, that thy people may dwell in peace and safety, and thy Church serve thee in all godly quietness; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Or the Collect for Canada, page 278.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 2. 11.

DEARLY beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul. Let your conduct among the Gentiles be honourable; that, whereas they speak against you as evil doers, they may, by your good works which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake; whether it be to the king, as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him, for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God, that with well-doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: as free men, and not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness; but as the servants of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 22. 16.

AND the Pharisees sent unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, what thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? show me the tribute-money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Caesar’s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s. When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

 

SAINT PETER AND SAINT PAUL THE APOSTLES

June 29.

THE COLLECTS.

O ALMIGHTY God, who by thy Son Jesus Christ didst give to thy Apostle Saint Peter many excellent gifts, and commandedst him earnestly to feed thy flock: Make, we beseech thee, all Bishops and Pastors diligently to preach thy holy Word, and the people obediently to follow the same, that they may receive the crown of everlasting glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

O GOD, who, through the preaching of the blessed Apostle Saint Paul, hast caused the light of the Gospel to shine throughout the world: Grant, we beseech thee, that we, having his manifold labours in remembrance, may show forth our thankfulness unto thee for the same, by following the holy doctrine which he taught; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 1. 1.

PETER, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you, who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations: that the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ: whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory: receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 16. 13.

WHEN Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I, the Son of man, am? And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist, some Elijah, and others Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon son of John: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I say also unto thee that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

The same Collects, Epistle, and Gospel may be used on any weekday in the Octave; or the following Collect, Epistle, and Gospel may be used in their place.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who didst give such grace unto thy holy Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, that they were enabled to bear witness to the truth by their death: Grant unto thy Church that, as in the beginning it was enlightened by their teaching, so it may continue in the same unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ; who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Corinthians 3. 18.

LET no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may become wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness. And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain. Therefore let no man glory in men. For all things are yours; whether Paul, or Apollos, or Peter, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come; all are yours; and ye are Christ’s; and Christ is God’s. Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.

THE GOSPEL. St John 21. 15.

SO when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of John, lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs. He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of John, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep. Verily, verily I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither thou wouldest not. This spake he, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me.

 

SAINT MARY MAGDALENE

July 22.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, whose blessed Son did sanctify Mary Magdalene, and call her to be a witness to his resurrection: Mercifully grant that by thy grace we may be healed of all our infirmities, and always serve thee in the power of his endless life; who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 13. 27.

FOR those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, though they found no cause of death in Jesus, yet desired they Pilate that he should be slain. And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre. But God raised him from the dead: and he was seen many days by them which came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses unto the people.

THE GOSPEL. St John 20. 11.

MARY stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, and seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him. And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master. Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.

 

SAINT JAMES THE APOSTLE

July 25.

THE COLLECT.

GRANT, O merciful God, that as thine holy Apostle Saint James, leaving his father and all that he had, without delay was obedient unto the calling of thy Son Jesus Christ, and followed him; so we, forsaking all worldly and carnal affections, may be evermore ready to follow thy holy commandments; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 11. 27.

IN those days came prophets from Jerusalem unto Antioch. And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit, that there would be a great famine throughout all the world; which came to pass in the days of the Emperor Claudius. Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren which dwelt in Judaea: which also they did, and sent it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. Now about that time Herod the king stretched forth his hands to do evil to certain of the Church. And he killed James the brother of John with the sword. And because he saw it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to take Peter also.

THE GOSPEL. St Mark 10. 32.

AND they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus was going before them; and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him, saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles; and they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him; and the third day he shall rise again. And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came, unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you? They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, it and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask. Can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized: but to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it hath been prepared.

 

THE TRANSFIGURATION OF OUR LORD

August 6.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who on the holy mount didst reveal to chosen witnesses thy well-beloved Son wonderfully transfigured: Mercifully grant unto us such a vision of his divine majesty, that we, being purified and strengthened by thy grace, may he transformed into his likeness from glory to glory; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 St Peter 1. 16.

WE have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory,

This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: knowing this first, that no prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 17. 1.

AFTER six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart, and was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light. And behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elijah talking with him. Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah. While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said,

This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased;
Hear ye him.

And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid. And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only. And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen again from the dead.

 

SAINT BARTHOLOMEW THE APOSTLE

August 24.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who didst give to thine Apostle Bartholomew grace truly to believe and to preach thy Word: Grant, we beseech thee, unto thy Church, to love that Word which he believed, and both to preach and receive the same; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 1. 10.

AND ‘while they looked stedfastly toward heaven, as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a sabbath day’s journey. And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode Peter and James and John and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Jude the brother of James. These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 22. 24.

THERE was a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called Benefactors. But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve. For which is greater, he that sitteth at the table, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at the table? but I am among you as he that serveth. Ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations. And I make a covenant with you, as my Father hath made a covenant with me, even a kingdom; that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

 

SAINT MATTHEW THE APOSTLE

September 21.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who by thy blessed Son didst call Matthew from the receipt of custom to be an Apostle and Evangelist: Grant us grace to forsake all covetous desires and inordinate love of riches, and to follow the same thy Son Jesus Christ; who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Corinthians 4. 1.

THEREFORE seeing we have this ministry, as we have received mercy, we faint not; but have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully, but by manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to every man’s conscience in the sight of God. But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: in whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them. For we preach not ourselves but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake. For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, in the face of Jesus Christ.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 9. 9.

AND as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him. And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in the house, behold, many publicans and sinners came, and sat down with him and his disciples. And when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto his disciples, Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners? But when Jesus heard that, he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

 

SAINT MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS

September 29.

THE COLLECT.

O EVERLASTING God, who hast ordained and constituted the services of Angels and men in a wonderful order: Mercifully grant that, as thy holy Angels alway do thee service in heaven, so by thy appointment they may succour and defend us on earth; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Revelation 12. 7.

THERE was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed not, neither was their place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the devil and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world; he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and power, and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 18. 1.

AT the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven? And Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them, and said, Verily I say unto you, Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven. And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name, receiveth me. But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea. Woe unto the world because of offences: for it must needs be that offences come: but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh. Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell-fire. Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, that in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven.

 

SAINT LUKE THE EVANGELIST

October 18.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who calledst Luke the Physician, whose praise is in the Gospel, to be an Evangelist, and Physician of the soul: May it please thee that, by the wholesome medicines of the doctrine delivered by him, all the diseases of our souls may be healed; through the merits of thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 2 Timothy 4. 5.

WATCH thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry. For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but unto all them that love his appearing. Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me; for Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia; Titus unto Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee; for he is helpful to me in the ministry. And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus. The cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee; and the books, but especially the parchments.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 24. 44.

JESUS said unto his apostles, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me. Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures, and said unto them, Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer, and rise again from the dead the third day; and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning from Jerusalem; and ye are witnesses of these things. And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be clothed with power from on high. And he led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them; and it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And they returned to Jerusalem with great joy; and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.

 

SAINT SIMON THE ZEALOT AND SAINT JUDE APOSTLES

WITH SAINT JUDE THE BROTHER OF THE LORD

October 28.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who hast built thy Church upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the head corner-stone: Grant us so to be joined together in unity of spirit by their doctrine, that we may be made an holy temple acceptable unto thee; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

The Priest may then at his discretion read the Collect of the Brethren of the Lord, page 275.

THE LESSON. Revelation 21. 10.

AND he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; and had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: on the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.

Or

THE EPISTLE. St Jude 1.

JUDE, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called: Mercy unto you, and peace, and love be multiplied. Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you, that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints. For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation; ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ.

THE GOSPEL. St John 14. 21.

HE that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me; and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. Judas saith unto him, (not Iscariot,) Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me. These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you. But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.

 

ALL SAINTS’ DAY

November 1.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who hast knit together thine elect in one communion and fellowship, in the mystical body of thy Son Christ our Lord: Grant us grace so to follow thy blessed Saints in all virtuous and godly living, that we may come to those unspeakable joys, which thou hast prepared for them that unfeignedly love thee; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

This Collect is to be repeated every day throughout the Octave.

THE LESSON. Revelation 7. 9.

AFTER this I beheld, and lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands; and cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders, and the four living creatures, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God, saying, Amen; Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen. And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they? And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat. For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 5. 1.

JESUS, seeing the multitudes, went up into a mountain; and when he was set, his disciples came unto him. And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peace-makers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad; for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

The Collect, Lesson, and Gospel of All Saints’ Day may be used on any weekday after in the Octave; or else the following of THE COMMEMORATION OF THE FAITHFUL DEPARTED.

THE COLLECT.

MOST merciful Father, who hast been pleased to take unto thyself our brethren departed: Grant to us who are still in our pilgrimage, and who walk as yet by faith, that having served thee faithfully in this world, we may, with all faithful Christian souls, be joined hereafter to the company of thy blessed Saints in glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Wisdom 3. 1.

THE souls of the righteous are in the hand of God, and there shall no torment touch them. In the sight of the unwise they seemed to die; and their departure is taken for misery, and their going from us to be utter destruction; but they are in peace. For though they be punished in the sight of men, yet is their hope full of immortality. And having been a little chastened, they shall be greatly rewarded; for God proved them and found them worthy for himself. As gold in the furnace hath he tried them, and received them as a burnt-offering. And in the time of their visitation they shall shine, and run to and fro like sparks among the stubble; they shall judge the nations and have dominion over the people, and their Lord shall reign for ever and ever.

THE GOSPEL. St John 10. 22.

IT was at Jerusalem, at the feast of the dedication, and it was winter; and Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon’s porch. Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. Jesus answered them, I told you and ye believed not; the works that I do in my Father’s name, they bear witness of me. But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. My Father who gave them to me is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father’s hand. I and my Father are one.

Or else the following of THE FOUNDERS, BENEFACTORS, AND MISSIONARIES, or other worthies of the Church in Canada, either on the Octave Day (if a Sunday, at a second service) or otherwise. in accordance with the Calendar, or such local custom as may be sanctioned by authority.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, our heavenly Father, we remember before thee all thy servants who have served thee faithfully in their generation, and have entered into rest, especially N. and N.; beseeching thee to give us grace so to follow in their steps, that with them we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Hebrews 11. 13.

THESE all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country. And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned. But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city. Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and hath sat down on the right hand of the throne of God.

THE GOSPEL. St John 4. 32.

JESUS said unto his disciples, I have food to eat that ye know not of. Therefore said the disciples one to another, Hath any man brought him aught to eat? Jesus saith unto them, My food is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work. Say not ye, There are yet four months, and then cometh harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest. And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal: that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together. And herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth. I sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labour: other men laboured, and ye have entered into their labours.

The following Collect, Lesson, and Gospel, OF ANY SAINT, May be used on any weekday after in the Octave, or for a Patronal Festival for which no other provision is made in this Book, or for a lesser Saint’s Day for which no provision is made.

THE COLLECT.

O ALMIGHTY God, who willest to be glorifled in thy Saints, and didst raise up thy servant N. to shine as a light in the world: Shine, we pray thee, in our hearts, that we also in our generation may show forth thy praises, who hast called us out of darkness into thy marvellous light; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Revelation 5. 6.

I BEHELD, and lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. And he came and took the book out of the right hand of him that sat upon the throne. And when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; and hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 25. 31.

WHEN the Son of Man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: and before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: and he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: for I was an-hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an-hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.

 

DEDICATION FESTIVAL

THE COLLECT.

O MOST blessed Saviour, who didst vouchsafe thy gracious presence at the Feast of Dedication: Be present with us at this time by thy Holy Spirit, and so possess our souls by thy grace, that we maybe living temples, holy and acceptable unto thee; who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 2. 1.

WHEREFORE, laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil-speaking, as new-born babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby unto salvation; if so be that ye have tasted that the Lord is good; to whom you come, as unto a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious, and are built up yourselves as living stones into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable unto God through Jesus Christ. Wherefore also it is contained in the Scripture,

Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner-stone, chosen and precious,
And he who believeth on him shall not be put to shame.

To you therefore who believe, he is precious, but to them that are disobedient it saith,

The stone which the builders rejected,
The same is made the head of the corner; and,

A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence; for those who stumble at the word in their disobedience; whereunto also it was appointed. But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a people for his own possession; that ye should declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his own marvellous light; which in times past were no people, but are now the people of God; which once had not obtained mercy, but have now obtained mercy.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 21. 10.

AND when Jesus was come into Jerusalem all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? And the multitude said, This is Jesus the Prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all those who sold and bought in the temple; and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold doves; and he said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer, but you have made it a den of thieves. And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple, and he healed them. And when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children shouting in the temple and saying, Hosanna to the son of David; they were sore displeased, and said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus said unto them, Yea: have ye never read,

Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?

 

THANKSGIVING DAY

THE COLLECT.

O MOST merciful Father, we humbly thank thee for all thy gifts so freely bestowed upon us; for life and health and safety; for power to work and leisure to rest; for all that is beautiful in creation and in the lives of men; but above all we thank thee for our spiritual mercies in Christ Jesus our Lord; who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

THE LESSON. Deuteronomy 8. 6.

THOU shalt keep the commandments of the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways and to fear him. For the LORD thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat and barley and vines and fig-trees and pomegranates; a land of oil-olive and honey; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness; thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass. When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the LORD thy God for the good land which he hath given thee. Beware that thou forget not the LORD thy God, in not keeping his commandments and his judgements and his statutes, which I command thee this day.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 17. 11.

AND it came to pass, as Jesus went on his way to Jerusalem, that he passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee. And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar off: and they lifted up their voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us. And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go, show yourselves unto the priests. And it came to pass that, as they went, they were cleansed. And one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God, and fell down on his face at his feet, giving him thanks; and he was a Samaritan. And Jesus answering said, Were there not ten cleansed? but where are the nine? There are not found that returned to give glory to God, save only this stranger. And he said unto him. Arise, go thy way, thy faith hath saved thee.

 

 

THE SUPPLEMENTARY COLLECTS EPISTLES AND GOSPELS

The following may be used on the appropriate commemorations and other occasions as directed hereunder, provided that no special provision has been made for the day in this Book, in which case the Collect may be used after the Collect of the day.

I. OTHER COMMEMORATIONS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR

Of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The Collect, Lesson, and Gospel of the Annunciation, or the following:

THE COLLECT.

O GOD Most High, who didst endue with wonderful virtue and grace the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of our Lord: Grant that we, who now call her blessed, may be made very members of the heavenly family of him who was pleased to be called the first-born among many brethren; who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 1. 12.

THEN the Apostles returned unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a Sabbath day’s journey. And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where abode Peter and James and John and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Jude the brother of James. These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 1. 39.

AND Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elizabeth. And it came to pass that, when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit; and she spake with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy. And blessed is she that believed; for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord. And Mary said,

My soul doth magnify the Lord,
And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour,
For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden.
For behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.
For he that is mighty hath magnified me;
And holy is his Name.

 

Of a Martyr.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, by whose grace and power thy Martyr N. was enabled to witness to the truth and to be faithful unto death: Grant that we, who now remember him before thee, may likewise so bear witness unto thee in this world, that we may receive with him the crown of glory that fadeth not away; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

Or this.

O GOD, who didst bestow upon thy Saints such marvellous virtue, that they were able to stand fast, and have the victory against the world, the flesh, and the devil: Grant that we, who now commemorate thy Martyr N., may ever rejoice in their fellowship, and also be enabled by thy grace to fight the good fight of faith and lay hold upon eternal life; through our Lord Jesus Christ, who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 4. 12.

BELOVED, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you; but rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of the sufferings of Christ; that when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy. If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, blessed are ye; for the Spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you; on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as a busybody in other men’s matters; but if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God in this name. For the time is come that judgement must begin at the house of God; and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the Gospel of God? And

If the righteous scarcely be saved,
Where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?

Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him, in well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 16. 24.

THEN said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? For the Son of Man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then shall he reward every man according to his works.

 

Of a Bishop or Archbishop.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, our heavenly Father, who didst raise up thy faithful servant N. to be a Bishop in thy Church and to feed thy flock: We beseech thee to send down upon all thy Bishops, the Pastors of thy Church, the abundant gift of thy Holy Spirit, that they, being endued with power from on high, and ever walking in the footsteps of thy holy Apostles, may minister before thee in thy household as true servants of Christ and stewards of thy divine mysteries; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the same Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 Timothy 6. 11.

BUT thou, O man of God, flee these things; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness. Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou art also called, and hast professed a good profession before many witnesses. I give thee charge in the sight of God, who giveth life to all, and before Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession; that thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ; which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords; who alone hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see; to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 12. 37.

BLESSED are those servants, whom their lord when he cometh shall find watching. Verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them. And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants. And this know, that if the good-man of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through. Be ye therefore ready also; for the Son of Man cometh at an hour when ye think not. Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even unto all? And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their food in due season? Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.

In some cases the Service for Founders and Benefactors, or for a Doctor of the Church, may be appropriate.

 

Of a Missionary.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, our heavenly Father, who by thy Son Jesus Christ didst call thy blessed Apostles and send them forth to preach thy Gospel of salvation unto all the nations: We bless thy holy Name for thy servant N., whose labours we commemorate this day, and we pray thee, according to thy holy Word, to send forth many labourers into thy harvest; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 12. 24.

NOW the word of God grew and multiplied, and Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their ministry, and took with them John, whose surname was Mark. And there were in the Church which was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Symeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. And as they were ministering to the Lord, and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them; and when they had fasted and prayed and laid their hands upon them, they sent them away. And they, being sent forth by the Holy Spirit, departed unto Seleucia, and from thence they sailed to Cyprus. And when they were at Salamis, they preached the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. And they had also John Mark as their minister.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 4. 13.

AND Jesus left Nazareth, and came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea-coast in the land of Zabulon and Naphtali, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying,

Land of and land of Naphtali,
The way of the sea, beyond Jordan,
Galilee of the Gentiles;
The people which sat in darkness have seen a great light;
To them which sat in the region and shadow of death, light is arisen.

From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishers. And he saith unto them, Follow me; and I will make you fishers of men. And they straightway left their nets, and followed him. And going on from thence he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them. And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him. And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the Gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people. And his fame went throughout all Syria.

 

Of a Virgin or Matron.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD Most High, the creator of all mankind, we bless thy holy Name for the virtue and grace which thou hast given unto holy women in all ages, especially thy servant N.; and we pray that the example of her faith and purity, and courage unto death, may inspire many souls in this generation to look unto thee, and to follow thy blessed Son Jesus Christ our Saviour; who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 9. 36.

NOW there was in Joppa a certain disciple named Tabitha, which by interpretation is called Dorcas; this woman was full of good works and alms-deeds which she did. And it came to pass in those days, that she was sick, and died; whom when they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber. And forasmuch as Lydda was nigh to Joppa, and the disciples had heard that Peter was there, they sent unto him two men, desiring him that he would not delay to come to them. Then Peter arose and went with them; and when he was come, they brought him into the upper chamber; and all the widows stood by him weeping, and showing the garments and cloaks which Dorcas had made while she was with them. And Peter put them out of the chamber, and kneeled down and prayed; and turning towards the body, he said, Tabitha, arise. And she opened her eyes; and when she saw Peter, she sat up; and he gave her his hand, and lifted her up; and when he had called the brethren and the widows, he presented her to them alive. And it was known throughout all Joppa, and many believed in the Lord.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 10. 38.

NOW it came to pass, as they went on their journey, that Jesus entered into a certain village; and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. And she had a sister called Mary, who was sitting at Jesus’ feet and listening to his word. But Martha was distracted with much serving; and she came up to him and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me alone to serve? Bid her therefore that she help me. And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha; thou art anxious and troubled about a multitude of things; one thing is needful; and Mary hath chosen the good portion, which shall not be taken away from her.

 

Of a Doctor of the Church, Poet, or Scholar.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who by thy Holy Spirit hast given unto one man a word of wisdom, and to another a word of knowledge, and to another the gift of tongues: We praise thy Name for the gifts of grace manifested in thy servant N., and we pray that thy Church may never be destitute of the same; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE LESSON. Daniel 2. 17.

THEN Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, his companions; that they should seek mercies from the God of heaven concerning this mystery; that Daniel and his companions should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. Then was the mystery revealed unto Daniel in a vision of the night. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven. Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever; for wisdom and might are his. And he changeth the times and the seasons; he removeth kings, and setteth up kings; he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding; he revealeth the deep and secret things; he knoweth what is in darkness, and the light dwelleth with him. I thank thee and praise thee, O thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me what we desired of thee; for thou hast made known unto us the king’s matter. Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon; he went in and said unto him, Destroy not the wise men of Babylon; bring me in before the king, and I will show unto the king the interpretation.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 13. 9.

JESUS said, He who hath ears to hear, let him hear. And his disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables? He answered and said unto them, To you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given. For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have in abundance; but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that he hath. Therefore speak I unto them in parables, because they see and see not, and they hear and hear not, neither do they understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah which saith,

Hearing, ye shall hear and shall not understand,
And seeing, ye shall see and not perceive;
For the heart of this people is become fat,
And with their ears they hardly hear,
And their eyes they have shut,
Lest they should see with their eyes,
And hear with their ears,
And understand with their heart,
And should turn, and I should heal them.

But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard.

 

Of St Joseph of Nazareth.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD Most High, who from the family of thy servant David didst raise up Joseph the carpenter to be protector of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of our Lord: Grant that we may so labour in our earthly vocations, that they may become labours of love and service offered unto thee, our Father; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

With the Epistle and Gospel of the Sunday after Christmas, page 113, if desired.

 

Of the Name of Jesus.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who by thy blessed Apostle hast taught us that there is none other name given among men whereby we must be saved, but only the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ: Grant, we beseech thee, that we may ever glory in this Name, and strive to make thy salvation known unto all mankind; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

With the Lesson and Gospel of the Octave Day of Christmas, page 116, if desired.

 

Of the Beheading of St John the Baptist.

THE COLLECT.

O GOD, who didst send thy messenger, John the Baptist, to be the forerunner of the Lord, and to glorify thee by his death: Grant that we, who have received the truth of thy most holy Gospel, may bear our witness thereunto, and after his example constantly speak the truth, boldly rebuke vice, and patiently suffer for the truth’s sake; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

With the Lesson and Gospel of his Nativity, page 278, if desired.

 

Of Holy Cross Day.

THE COLLECT.

O BLESSED Saviour, who by thy cross and passion hast given life unto the world: Grant that we thy servants may be given grace to take up the cross and follow thee through life and death; whom with the Father and the Holy Spirit we worship and glorify, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

With the Epistle and Gospel of Passion Sunday, page 148, if desired.

 

Of Any Saint: see the Octave of All Saints’ Day, page 304.

 

Of Founders, Benefactors, and Missionaries of the Church in Canada, or on historical anniversaries: see the Octave of All Saints’ Day, page 302.

 

Of All Souls’ Day: see the Octave of All Saints’ Day, page 301.

 

II. SPECIAL OCCASIONS

In these Services the Collect of the day shall always be used.

At a Service for the Sick.

THE COLLECT.

GOD of all grace and power: Behold, visit and relieve this thy servant N.; look upon him with the eyes of thy mercy, give him comfort and sure confidence in thee, defend him in all danger, and keep him in perpetual peace and safety; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. 1 St Peter 5. 5.

MY brethren, God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace unto the humble. Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time; casting all your care upon him, for he careth for you. Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil goeth about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour: whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren who are in the world. And the God of all grace, who hath called you unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a little, will himself make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 8. 13.

AND Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee; and his servant was healed in the selfsame hour. And when Jesus was come into Peter’s house, he saw his wife’s mother lying sick of a fever. And he touched her hand, and the fever left her; and she arose and ministered unto them. And when the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed of devils; and he cast out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet,

Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses.

 

At a Conference or Retreat.

THE COLLECT.

ALMIGHTY God, who hast given us grace at this time with one accord to make our common supplications unto thee; and dost promise that when two or three are gathered together in thy Name thou wilt grant their requests: Fulfil now, O Lord, the desires and petitions of thy servants, as may be most expedient for them; granting us in this world knowledge of thy truth, and in the world to come life everlasting. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Ephesians 3. 14.

FOR this cause I bow my knees unto the Father, from whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge, that ye may be filled with all the fulness of God. Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us, unto him be glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.

THE GOSPEL. St Matthew 11. 25.

AT that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight. All things are delivered unto me of my Father; and no man knoweth the Son but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him. Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart; and ye shall find rest unto your souls.

At a Conference or Retreat for the Clergy, or at an Anniversary of an Ordination, or similar occasion, the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel from the Ordinal, page 646, may be used.

 

At a Synod or Rural Deanery.

THE COLLECT.

GUIDE, we beseech thee, Almighty God, by the light of thy Holy Spirit, the counsels of the Bishop[s], Clergy, and Laity at this time assembled in General [Provincial, Diocesan] Synod; that thy Church may dwell in peace, and fulfil all the mind of him who loved it and gave himself for it, thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

Or this.

O LORD, we beseech thee to keep thy Church and household continually in thy true religion; that they who do lean only upon the hope of thy heavenly grace may evermore be defended by thy mighty power; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.

THE LESSON. Acts 2. 38.

THEN Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call. And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this crooked generation. Then they that gladly received his word were baptized; and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. And they continued stedfastly in the Apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in the breaking of the bread, and in the prayers. And fear came upon every soul; and many wonders and signs were done by the Apostles. And all that believed were together, and had all things in common; and sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men as every man had need. And they continued daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their food with gladness and singleness of heart, praising God, and having favour with all the people.

THE GOSPEL. St John 16. 5.

JESUS said unto his disciples, Now I go my way to him that sent me, and none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou? But, because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgement: of sin, because they believe not on me; of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more; of judgement, because the prince of this world is judged. I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you.

This Service may be used at the meeting of a Rural Deanery or Archdeaconry by adapting the first Collect; or on other appropriate occasions by using the second Collect.

 

For a Parochial Mission.

THE COLLECT.

STIR up, we beseech thee, O Lord, thy power and come among us; that by thy protection we may be rescued from the bondage of our sins, and saved by thy mighty deliverance; who with the Father and the Holy Spirit livest and reignest, one God, world without end. Amen.

Or this.

WE beseech thee, O Lord, pour thy grace into our hearts; that, as we have known the incarnation of thy Son Jesus Christ by the message of an angel, so by his cross and passion we may be brought unto the glory of his resurrection; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

THE EPISTLE. Romans 3. 19.

WHATSOEVER things the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world be made subject to the judgement of God; for no flesh shall be accounted righteous in his sight by the works of the law; for by the law cometh knowledge of sin; but now the righteousness of God hath been revealed apart from the law, being witnessed to by the law and the prophets; even the righteousness of God, which is by faith in Jesus Christ for all them that believe. For there is no distinction made; for all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God, and are granted righteousness as a free gift through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, whom God hath set forth to be an atonement, through faith, by his blood.

THE GOSPEL. St Luke 15. 11.

AND he spake to them another parable, A certain man had two sons: and the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living. And not many days after, the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living. And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want. And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him. And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants. And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son. But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: and bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry: for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry. Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant. And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound. And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and entreated him. And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends: but as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf. And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine. It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.

In a Mission which covers a whole week or more, the Services appointed for Advent Sunday, Christmas, Holy Week, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, and All Saints, could be taken successively, day by day; with the sanction of the Bishop on every occasion.

At a Memorial Service, including Remembrance Day: see Commemoration of the Faithful Departed, page 301, or the Burial Service, page 608.

At a Dedication Festival or the Consecration of a Church: see pages 305 and 689.

At a Patronal Festival: see Octave of All Saints’ Day, page 304.

At a Harvest Thanksgiving: see page 620.

On a National Occasion, such as Dominion Day, the Accession Day: see the Nativity of St John the Baptist, page 281.

At a Wedding: see the Solemnization of Matrimony, page 571.

At a Burial: see the Order for the Burial of the Dead, page 608.

III. SERVICES FOR WEEKDAYS

On any weekday for which no special provision has been made, the Priest may at his discretion use any of the Services for Special Occasions as set out in the section of this Book immediately preceding; or as follows:

Monday or Tuesday: the Services appointed for Monday and Tuesday in Holy Week, Easter Week, and Whitsun Week.

Wednesday: for Ash Wednesday, Wednesday in Holy Week, and Rogation Days.

Thursday: for Maundy Thursdayand Ascension Day.

Friday: for Holy Cross Dayand Good Friday.

Saturday: for Easter Even and the Commemoration of the Faithful Departed.

Or, at his discretion, the Services appointed for special seasons of Prayer and Fasting:

For Peace in the World: the Advent Ember Days, page 100.

For Missionary Work Overseas: in the Epiphany Octave, page 121.

For Missionary Work in our own Country: the Lenten Ember Days, page 142.

For Rural Life and Work: the Rogation Days, page 199.

For the Clergy and Ordination Candidates: the Whitsun Ember Days, page 210.

For the Unity of the Christian Church: the second Service for Pentecost, page 213.

For National Welfare: the Octave of St John the Baptist, page 281.

For Labour and Industry: the Autumn Ember Days, page 245.

For the Commemoration of the Faithful Departed, and for the Commemoration of Benefactors etc.: the Octave of All Saints’ Day, pages 301 and 302.

On a Day of Prayer: the Rogation Days, page 198.

On a Day of Thanksgiving: Thanksgiving Day, page 307.

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Book of Common Prayer
1962 Canada

“The Book of Common Prayer: a book so scriptural that it is full of scripture from one end to the other, and built altogether upon it” (Bp John Medley)

Le Recueil des Prières: Access the Prayer Book in French

1 Preface [page vii]
2 Solemn Declaration [page viii]
3 The Calendar [page ix]
4 Days of Fasting, Abstinence, and Solemn Prayer [page xiii]
5 A Table of Moveable Feasts [page xiv]
6 Tables of Lessons [page xvi]
7 Lessons Proper for Holy-Days not Included in the Foregoing Table
8 Tables of Psalms [page xiviii]
9 The Order for Morning Prayer [page 1]
10 Prayers at Midday [page 16]
11 The Order for Evening Prayer [page 17]
12 Additional Canticles [page 25]
13 The Litany [page 30]
14 Prayers and Thanksgivings [page 37]
15 A Bidding Prayer [page 62]
16 The Order of the Ministration of the Holy Communion [page 67]
17 The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels [page 94]
18 The Psalter [page 331]
19 The Ministration of Holy Baptism [page 522]
20 The Catechism [page 544]
21 The Order for Confirmation [page 556]
22 A Table of Kindred and Affinity [page 562]
23 The Solemnization of Matrimony [page 563]
24 The Thanksgiving after Child-birth [page 573]
25 The Ministry to the Sick [page 576]
26 The Order for the Burial of the Dead [page 591]
27 A Penitential Service [page 611]
28 Services on Special Occasions [page 616]
29 Harvest Thanksgiving [page 617]
30 An Order of Service for Young People [page 622]
31 Forms of Prayer to be used at Sea [page 628]
32 The Form and Manner of Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons [page 637]
33 Form of Institution and Induction [page 668]
34 Office for Laying the Foundation Stone of a Church or Chapel [page 677]
35 Form of Consecration of a Church or Chapel [page 681]
36 Form of Consecration of a Church-yard [page 692]
37 The Creed of St Athanasius [page 695]
38 Articles of Religion [page 698]
39 The Original Preface (1549), Altered in 1552 and 1662, Concerning the Service of the Church [page 715]
40 Of Ceremonies, Why some be Abolished and some Retained (1549) [page 717]
41 The Preface Prefixed at the Revision of 1662 [page 719]
42 An Order for Compline [page 722]
43 Forms of Prayers to be used in Families [page 728]